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Monday, 27 May 2013

500 IELTS Vocabulary-2


concept:
/'kɒnsɛpt/ n. Syn. notion; idea
something formed in the mind; thought or notion
The local chain concept is simple: identify your customer, cater to their tastes and once successful, expand within a neighborhood.

conclude:
/kən'klu:d/ v. Syn. deduce; infer
enclose; reach as an end of reasoning; make final determination ; judge or decide; bring to an end
From his appearance we may safely conclude that he is a smoker.

concurrent:
/kən'kʌrənt/ a. Syn. simultaneous; coincident
simultaneous; coincident; occurring or operating at the same time
The Winter War fought between Finland and the Soviet Union, was a concurrent war to World War II, and thus is covered in its own main article.

conduct:
/'kɒndʌkt/ v. Syn. accompany; direct
direct the course of; manage or control; lead or guide
You cannot conduct business like this.

confer:
/kən'fɜr(r)/ v.
bestow; present; have a conference in order to talk something over
The sternest-seeming stoic is human after all; and to "burst" with boldness and good-will into "the silent sea" of their souls is often to confer on them the first of obligations.

confine:
/kən'faɪn/ v. Syn. limit; circumscribe
restrict in movement; circumscribe
You may take the maniac with you to England; confine her with due attendance and precautions at Thornfield.

confirm:
/kən'fɜrm/ v. Syn. verify; corroborate
support or establish the certainty or validity of; verify
In the aftermath of Saturday's mass poisoning, the authorities imposed a virtual news blackout, refusing even to confirm how many people had died.

conflict:
/'kɒnflɪkt/ n. Syn. fight; struggle
fight; struggle; incompatibility of dates or events
Malnutrition rates have now been cut by half since the start of the conflict, according to the United Nations.

conform:
/kən'fɔ:m/ v.
comply with; follow; fit; meet
Why, in defiance of every precept and principle of this house, does she conform to the world so openly--here in an evangelical, charitable establishment--as to wear her hair one mass of curls?

consent:
/kən'sɛnt/ v. Syn. accord; concur; allow
agree in opinion or sentiment; be of the same mind; accord; concur; allow
"And will you consent to dispense with a great many conventional forms and phrases, without thinking that the omission arises from insolence?"

consequent:
/'kɒnsɪkwənt/ a. Syn. resulting
resulting; following as a logical conclusion
His retirement and consequent spare time enabled him to travel more.

considerable:
/kən'sɪdərəb(ə)l/ a. Syn. significant
worthy of consideration; large in amount, extent, or degree
The Tigers are insisting on an interim administration for the north east of the island, giving them considerable powers.

consist:
/kən'sɪst/ v.
stand firm; be in a fixed or permanent state; be supported and maintained
If his notions of hidden treasure had been analyzed, they would have been found to consist of a handful of real dimes and a bushel of vague, splendid, ungraspable dollars.

constant:
/'kɒnstənt/ a. Syn. invariable; repeating
invariable; repeating; continually occurring; persistent
Yemen's state news agency says the president visited the three wounded officials at the Saudi hospital, and expressed happiness about constant progress in their health.

constitute:
/'kɒnstɪtju:t/ v. Syn. form
make up; form something
"I never did see the beat of that boy!" She went to the open door and stood in it and looked out among the tomato vines that would constitute the garden.

constrain:
/kən'streɪn/ v. Syn. restrain; confine
restrain; keep within close bounds; confine
His idea is to constrain commercial banks' lending.

construct:
/kən'strʌkt/ v. Syn. erect; build
form by assembling or combining parts; build; create
After all, perhaps there were different ways to construct machines that would have different properties.

consult:
/kən'sʌlt/ v.
seek advice or information of; take into account; consider
I will consult with our friends, but it's going to be what's in the interests of our country first and foremost.

consume:
/kən'sju:m/;/kən'su:m/ v. Syn. devour; eat
devour; eat
It is particularly an issue for those that have made large strides in industrial development, the sector of the economy that tends to consume the most energy.

contact:
/'kɒntækt/ v.
get in touch with; reach
But Britney, 21, says he called her at two of her homes, and even tried to contact her at her parents' house.

contemporary:
/kən'tɛmpərərɪ/;/kən'tɛmpərɛrɪ/ a.
modern; belonging to the same period of time
The Danes have now taken the top drama award at the Emmys for three out of the past four years with contemporary drama set in Denmark.

context:
/'kɒntɛkst/ n. Syn. circumstance; setting
circumstance
Last week the Italian Prime Minister apologized to parliament in Rome for his alleged remarks about the superiority of western culture over that of Islam, claiming his words had been taken out of context.

contract:
/'kɒntrækt/ v. Syn. shrink; constrict
constrict; make smaller; compress or concentrate
The heat will contract the woollen garment.

contradict:
/kɒntrə'dɪkt/ v. Syn. confront; oppose
confront; oppose
Now act as you please: write and contradict my assertion--expose my falsehood as soon as you like.

contrary:
/'kɒntrərɪ/;/'kɒntrɛrɪ/ a. Syn. opposite
relation of direct opposition; very opposed in nature or character or purpose
Our boat took a course contrary to theirs.

contrast:
/'kɒntrɑrst/;/'kɒntræst/ n.
act of distinguishing by comparing differences
In contrast, the Prime Minister's aides are preparing his defense, saying that at the time, the entire cabinet backed the move to war, and that he's willing to implement all the committee's recommendations.

contribute:
/kən'trɪbju:t/ v.
provide; bestow a quality on
Throughout the developed world, many companies provide a fund, which they and their staff contribute to, which is then invested in shares, bonds and other assets.

controversy:
/'kɒntrəvɜrsɪ/ n. Syn. contention; argument
contentious speech act; argument
Information minister Jerry Gana released a statement in which he says there has been an international media conspiracy against Nigeria, to highlight the controversy surrounding the beauty pageant and fanning the flames of violence.

convene:
/kən'vi:n/ v. Syn. assemble
cause to come together formally
Six days 'public notice must be given when announcing HTA meeting schedules, meaning the earliest the board can next convene is July 24.

converse:
/kən'vɜrs/ v. Syn. chat
chat; talk informally; engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts
Eva is all ears while Lulu and Lola converse.

convert:
/kən'vɜrt/ n. Syn. transform
change something into another form; transform
However, he suggests that this only be done if the convert is also willingly accepted into his position by the community.

convince:
/kən'vɪns/ v.
overpower; force to yield assent to truth; satisfy by proof; prove guilty
Your argument is too weak to convince me; we need more evidence.

cooperate:
/koʊ'ɒpəreɪt/ v. Syn. collaborate
work or act together toward a common end or purpose
The best way to get Pakistan to cooperate is to find the reasons why it is so keen to retain influence in Afghanistan and try to meet its concerns.

coordinate:
/koʊ'ɔ:dɪneɪt/ v. Syn. integrate; harmonize
bring order and organization to; harmonize
The second way of specifying star positions is the equatorial coordinate system.

core:
/kɔ:(r)/ n. Syn. center; essence
basic, center, or most important part; essence
But at the core is a story about two men who can't let go of the sense that they are dreaming their way through what might be an ultimately meaningless life.

corporate:
/'kɔ:pərət/ a.
united or combined into one body; collective; belonging to corporation or incorporated body
The demonstrators inspired thousands of allies to take to the streets to protest economic inequality and corporate greed.

correspond:
/kɒrɪ'spɒnd/;/kɔ:rə'spɒnd/ v.
be compatible, similar or consistent; exchange messages
My Russian pen pal and I correspond for several years.

couple:
/'kʌp(ə)l/ n. Syn. pair
a male and female associated together; a pair who associate with one another
He catched amarried couple from Chicago.

create:
/kri:'eɪt/ v.
make or cause to be or to become; invest with a new thing
He plans to create a new company next year.

credit:
/'krɛdɪt/ n. Syn. reputation; prestige
arrangement for deferred payment for goods and services; money available for a client to borrow
The proposed treaty would give credit to peasant farmers who developed the crops in the first place.

criteria:
/kraɪ'tɪərə/ n.
standard, rule, or test on which a judgment or decision can be based
This spring, the health department established a set of criteria for such clinics, including an offer of primary-care appointments within 24 hours of first contact.

crucial:
/'kru:ʃ(ə)l/ a.
of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis; of the greatest importance
The meeting of today is the crucial moment in his career.

culture:
/'kʌltʃə(r)/ n. Syn. civilization
all the knowledge and values shared by a society ; foster; raising of plants or animals
Last week the Italian Prime Minister apologised to parliament in Rome for his alleged remarks about the superiority of western culture over that of Islam, claiming his words had been taken out of context.

currency:
/'kʌrənsɪ/ n. Syn. money
money; general acceptance or use
It now ranks along with oil and tourism as Mexico's biggest foreign currency earner.

cycle:
/'saɪk(ə)l/ n.
periodically repeated sequence of events; long period of time; entire round in a circle or a spire
Do they not understand that the spin cycle is an important part of the washing machine?

data:
/'deɪtə, 'dɑrtə/;/'dætə/ n.
collection of facts, observations, or other information related to a particular question or problem
Now that data is required from around the world, the IEA must obtain them from a wide variety of sources.

debate:
/dɪ'beɪt/ n. Syn. argument
discussion; dispute; discussion involving opposing points
Robert Potts, who recently retired as chancellor at Arkansas State University, witnessed the nickname debate in two states.

decade:
/'dɛkeɪd/ n.
a group or division of ten, especially a period of ten years
Only very, very rarely does someone so far out of the political swim as Jerry Brown, who last held political office almost a decade ago, manage to win the presidential nomination of a major party.

decline:
/dɪ'klaɪn/ n. Syn. deterioration; decay
change toward something smaller or lower ; gradual falling off from a better state
Dustan has a record of switching sides when convenient, and there are many Taliban supporters who would do likewise if the fortunes of the puritan militia are on the decline.

deduce:
/dɪ'dju:s/ v.
lead forth; reach a conclusion by reasoning; trace the origin or derivation of
Our investor and our employee deduce from the figures that the report shows that the Company handled a lot of money during the year, and made a bigger profit than ever before.

define:
/dɪ'faɪn/ v.
determine the nature of; give a definition; describe the nature or basic qualities of; explain
That argument may define the political parties and help shape the 2012 elections.

definite:
/'dɛfɪnɪt/ a. Syn. fixed; exact
fixed; exact; having distinct limits
He introduced the closed circuit of oscillation into wireless telegraphy, and was one of the first to send electric waves in definite directions.

demonstrate:
/'dɛmənstreɪt/ v. Syn. show; confirm; prove; manifest
show clearly and deliberately; manifest; confirm; prove
After a series of drug scandals, this was Major League Baseball's chance to demonstrate its determination to crack down on the cheats.

denote:
/dɪ'noʊt/ v. Syn. signify; indicate; show
indicate; signify directly; refer to specifically
The word “sex” is simply that—a word to denote whether a person is male or female.

deny:
/dɪ'naɪ/ v. Syn. disagree; disavow
disagree with; refuse; declare untrue
What I do deny is that we have been inconsistent with respect to our view of the Constitution

depress:
/dɪ'prɛs/ v. Syn. lower
lower in spirits; press down
There are hopes that this could help to revive the internet and technology sector which has shown to depress since the dotcom crash of 2000.

derive:
/dɪ'raɪv/ v. Syn. obtain; extract
obtain or receive from a source; trace the origin or development of
For I knew Diana and Mary would derive more pleasure from seeing again the old homely tables than from the spectacle of the smartest innovations.

design:
/dɪ'zaɪn/ n. Syn. devise
act of working out the form of something; creation of something in the mind; formulate a plan for
He is hired to design a marketing strategy for the new product.

despite:
/dɪ'spaɪt/ n.
lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike; disdain, contemptuous feelings, hatred
He didn't hide his despite in the party because he believed the host cheated.

detect:
/dɪ'tɛkt/ v. Syn. feel; discover the presence of; discern; sense; identify
feel; discover the presence of; identify
They won't detect prescription drugs or medication such as cold or flu tablets.

deviate:
/'di:vɪeɪt/ v. Syn. depart; diverge
turn away from a principle, norm; depart; diverge
Richard did not deviate from his daily routine: every day he set off for work at eight o'clock, had his sack lunch at 12:15, and headed home at the stroke of five.

device:
/dɪ'vaɪs/ n. Syn. instrument
technique or means; instrument; machine used to perform one or more relatively simple tasks
Anti-gravity device could change air travel.

devote:
/dɪ'voʊt/ v. Syn. dedicate; contribute
dedicate; contribute
Those who trade them hunt out the fiercest insects and devote many hours to training them.

differentiate:
/dɪfə'rɛnʃɪeɪt/ v. Syn. distinguish; discriminate
set apart; distinguish; perceive or show difference in or between
You can differentiate car parts by using different color markers; maybe you use one color for the left side and another for the right.

dimension:
/dɪ'mɛnʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. measure; size
measure of spatial extent, especially width, height, or length; size; aspect; element
Describing time as a dimension is a natural assumption.

diminish:
/dɪ'mɪnɪʃ/ v. Syn. dwindle; reduce; decrease
dwindle; reduce; make smaller or less or to cause to appear so
The only way to diminish mistakes is to bring competitors into the game.

discrete:
/dɪ'skri:t/ a. Syn. separate; distinct
separate; consisting of unconnected distinct parts
The universe is composed of discrete bodies.

discriminate:
/dɪ'skrɪmɪneɪt/ v.
make a clear distinction; distinguish; make sensible decisions; judge wisely
It's not just a notion when 46 states can still discriminate against same-sex couples getting married.

displace:
/dɪs'pleɪs/ v. Syn. move; replace; substitute
move or shift from the usual place or position, especially to force to leave a homeland
This war will displace lots of refugees from their villages.

display:
/dɪ'spleɪ/ v. Syn. exhibit; present; show
exhibit; present or hold up to view; show; demonstrate; give evidence of; manifest
The airport authorities decided to remove all Christmas trees because a Jewish rabbi threatened to sue them if they didn't also display a menorah.

dispose:
/dɪ'spoʊz/ v.
get rid of; settle or decide a matter; place or set in a particular order; arrange
Do not use them to dispose of household trash.

distinct:
/dɪ'stɪŋkt/ a. Syn. definite; separate; different
definite; separate; different
The UN has always been at pains to say that its role in occupied Iraq is distinct from that of the US-led forces, and many ordinary Iraqis appreciated that the primary UN role was humanitarian.

distort:
/dɪ'stɔ:t/ v. Syn. deform; twist
twist out of proper or natural relation of parts; misshape; misrepresent
It is difficult to believe the newspaper accounts of the riots because of the way some reporters distort and exaggerate the actual events.

distribute:
/dɪ'strɪbju:t/ v. Syn. disseminate; allocate
hand out; disseminate; allocate
They are planning to buy some main firms that distribute gas to European consumers.

diverse:
/daɪ'vɜrs/ a. Syn. various
differing in some characteristics; various
The professor suggested diverse ways of approaching the assignment and recommended that we choose one of them.

document:
/'dɒkjʊmənt/ v. Syn. record
provide written evidence; record in detail
She kept all the receipts from her business trip in order to document her expenses for the firm.

domain:
/də'meɪn/ n. Syn. field
field; territory over which rule or control is exercised; networked computers that share a common address
Our cat knows who the queen of the domain is.

domestic:
/də'mɛstɪk/ a. Syn. house-hold; tame
house-hold; of or relating to the home ; within the country or home
Only a substantial increase in the price of domestic fuel will make local refineries more profitable.

dominate:
/'dɒmɪneɪt/ v. Syn. monopolize; command; rule
monopolize; command; rule; prevail; be prevalent in
People tend to have one side of their brain dominate their thought patterns.

draft:
/drɑrft/;/dræft/ n. Syn. sketch
rough outline; draw up an outline; sketch
Now governments are re-writing the EU's governing treaty and the draft version is considered by the EU's leaders in Brussels.

drama:
/'drɑrmə/ n. Syn. play
play; literary work intended for theater
The Danes have now taken the top drama award at the Emmys for three out of the past four years.

duration:
/djʊə'reɪʃ(ə)n/;/dʊ'reɪʃn/ n. Syn. length; period
length of time something lasts
Because she wanted the children to make a good impression on the dinner guests, Mother promised them a treat if they'd behave for the duration of the meal.

dynamic:
/daɪ'næmɪk/ a. Syn. energetic
energetic; vigorously active
The dynamic aerobics instructor kept her students on the run.

economy:
/ɪ'kɒnəmɪ/ n.
efficient use of resources; reduction in cost; specific type of economic system
The tribe's main economy is primitive agriculture and its wealth is sometimes counted in people as well as animals.

edit:
/'ɛdɪt/ v.
revise and prepare for publication; select, correct, arrange matter of, for publication
In word processing, the ability to define information so as to move it from one point to another within a text element or into another text element, or to edit it.

element:
/'ɛlɪmənt/ n. Syn. component
fundamental or essential constituent of a composite entity; basic assumptions or principles of a subject
There's always an element of danger in mountain climbing.

eliminate:
/ɪ'lɪmɪneɪt/ v. Syn. eradicate; abolish
eradicate; abolish; rule out
So the EU’s offer to eliminate the subsidy was almost universally welcomed.

emerge:
/ɪ'mɜrdʒ/ v. Syn. appear
come into prominence; spring up; appear
New cases continue to emerge on an almost daily basis.

emphasis:
/'ɛmfəsɪs/ n.
special attention or effort directed toward something; stress
They also said that there was too much emphasis placed on protecting the liberty of individuals at the expense of broader social justice.

empirical:
/ɛm'pɪrɪk(ə)l/ a.
derived from experiment and observation rather than theory
He distrusted hunches and intuitive flashes; he placed his reliance entirely on empirical data.

enable:
/ɪ'neɪb(ə)l/ v.
supply with the means, knowledge, or opportunity; make able; make feasible or possible
And the time will come with we shall have become so unfit that nothing we can do will enable us to survive.

encounter:
/ɪn'kaʊntə(r)/ v. Syn. face; confront; meet
face; confront; meet, especially unexpectedly; come upon
Even children who can swim are at risk as they often move too far away from their families and then encounter difficulties getting back to dry land.

energy:
/'ɛnədʒɪ/ n. Syn. vigor; power
exertion of force; capacity for work or vigorous activity; usable heat or power
Each year Americans consume a high percentage of the world's energy.

enforce:
/ɪn'fɔ:s/ v. Syn. force; constrain; compel
put force upon; force; constrain; compel; put in motion or action by violence
Can the police enforce the same rule to avoid another Rodney King incident?

enhance:
/ɪn'hɑrns/;/ɪn'hæns/ v. Syn. increase; improve
make better or more attractive; increase; improve
This sauce will enhance the flavor of the meat.

enormous:
/ɪ'nɔ:məs/ a. Syn. tremendous; huge; massive
very great in size, extent, number, or degrees; huge; massive
An enormous puppy was looking down at her with large round eyes, and feebly stretching out one paw, trying to touch her.

ensure:
/ɪn'ʃʊə(r)/;/ɪn'ʃʊər/ v.
make sure or certain; insure; assure
For example, to ensure data security, a publicly held company will need to control who has access to financial records.

entity:
/'ɛntɪtɪ/ n.
real being; something that exists as a particular and discrete unit; fact of existence
Persons and corporations are equivalent entity under the law.

environment:
/ɪn'vaɪərənmənt/ n. Syn. circumstance
surroundings; totality of surrounding conditions
We shall never understand the natural environment until we see it as a living organism.

equate:
/ɪ'kweɪt/ v.
make equal or equivalent; reduce to a standard or an average; equalize
Most Americans equate success with wealth and fame.

equip:
/ɪ'kwɪp/ v.
supply with necessities such as tools or provisions; furnish with the qualities necessary for performance
Escort ships are also the only ships on which you can equip cannons.

equivalent:
/ɪ'kwɪvələnt/ a. Syn. interchangeable; comparable; tantamount
interchangeable; comparable; equal, as in value, force, or meaning
The Clinton campaign has raised more money in the first three months than all nine Democratic candidates in the equivalent period for the 2004 election.

erode:
/ɪ'roʊd/ v. Syn. corrode
eat away; wear away by abrasion; become worn
The film shows how dripping water to erode the limestone until only a thin shell remained.

establish:
/ɪ'stæblɪʃ/ v.
set up or found; build
His first novel did not establish his fame as a writer, but second one did.

estate:
/ɪ'steɪt/ n. Syn. property
extensive landed property; everything you own; all of your assets
Jackson's estate is also subject to federal inheritance taxes.

estimate:
/'ɛstɪmət/ v. Syn. assess; appraise; evaluate
judge to be probable; form an opinion about; evaluate
The insurance industry is well prepared to estimate of the loss it will suffer.

ethic:
/'ɛθɪk/ n.
a set of principles of right conduct; theory or a system of moral values
Do these clowns want us to emulate the Japanese "work until you die" ethic?

ethnic:
/'ɛθnɪk/ a. Syn. racial
relating to races; group of people sharing common racial, national, or religious heritage
But guess why they stay home and suppress what they call ethnic unrest?

evaluate:
/ɪ'væljʊeɪt/ v. Syn. judge; appraise; estimate
judge; examine and judge carefully; appraise
They saw several oil slicks but could not evaluate their size.

eventual:
/ɪ'vɛntjʊəl/ a. Syn. ultimate; final; inevitable
ultimate; occurring at an unspecified time in the future
One of Mr. Barak's legacies is that more Israelis now know that an eventual peace agreement with the Palestinians will have to involve a deal on Jerusalem.

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