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Monday, 27 May 2013

500 IELTS Vocabulary-4


legal:
/'li:g(ə)l/ a.
created by, permitted by law; according to the law of works
I could not rid myself of it by any legal proceedings: for the doctors now discovered that my wife was mad.

legislate:
/'lɛdʒɪsleɪt/ v.
make laws; create or pass laws
He did his best to legislate from the bench and we'll be living with his opinions for the rest of our lives.

levy:
/'lɛvɪ/ v. Syn. impose; collect
impose fine or tax; collect payment
Crying "No taxation without representation," the colonists demonstrated against England's power to levy taxes.

liberal:
/'lɪbər(ə)l/ a. Syn. tolerant
open-minded; tolerant; broad-mindedness; having political views favoring reform and progress
His views may be not agreeable to the liberal political mainstream.

likewise:
/'laɪkwaɪz/ ad. Syn. similarly
similarly; as well; too
Dostam has a record of switching sides when convenient, and there are many supporters who would do likewise.

link:
/lɪŋk/ v.
be or become joined or united; connect, fasten, or put together two or more pieces
After a whole day shopping, the travelers will link up again at the airport.

locate:
/loʊ'keɪt/;/'loʊkeɪt/ v. Syn. find; monitor; settle
find; monitor; settle; determine or specify the position or limits o
It will also develop techniques to locate and tap underground water reservoirs.

logic:
/'lɒdʒɪk/ n.
reasoned and reasonable judgment; a system of reasoning
Your paper lacks the logic to prove your thesis.

maintain:
/meɪn'teɪn/ v. Syn. support; sustain
keep in any particular state or condition; keep up or carry on; continue
What we are actually trying to maintain is never ending growth.

major:
/'meɪdʒə(r)/ a.
greater in number, quantity, or extent; more important
We have met with major problems in the project and they will be addressed as schedule.

manipulate:
/mə'nɪpjʊleɪt/ v. Syn. maneuver; control
operate with one's hands; control or play upon people, forces artfully
Meanwhile, greed and vanity, using lies and fear, will once again manipulate ignorance and resentment.

manual:
/'mænjʊəl/ n. Syn. guide book
guide book; hand-operated
Three workers at the plant followed an illegal manual and caused a nuclear reaction late last month.

margin:
/'mɑrdʒɪn/ n. Syn. border; rim; room
border; rim; room
In the lower house, they will have an even bigger margin.

mature:
/mə'tjʊə(r)/;/mə'tʊər/ v.
develop and reach maturity; grow old or older
I need to mature my thoughts in future college years.

maximise:
/'mæksɪmaɪz/ v. Syn. maximize
make as big or large as possible
Glass shelves help maximise light in a small bathroom.

mechanism:
/'mɛkənɪz(ə)m/ n. Syn. device; machine
device; machine; the technical aspects of doing something
On the key issue of land rights, it called for a mechanism to study ancestral links to the land.

media:
/'mi:dɪə/ n. Syn. medium; television; newspaper
public institutions that report the news, such as newspapers, magazines, radio, and television
Science fiction in media is exponentially bigger as a market than science fiction in literary form.

mediate:
/'mi:dɪeɪt/ v. Syn. negotiate
resolve or settle differences by working with all conflicting parties
King Solomon was asked to mediate a dispute between two women, each of whom claimed to be the mother of the same child.

medium:
/'mi:dɪəm/ n.
state that is intermediate between extremes
Certainly Shostakovich was lucky to work in a wordless abstract medium, where interpretation is strongly subjective.

mental:
/'mɛnt(ə)l/ a.
involving mind or intellectual process; affected by disorder of mind
All doctors agreed this is a mental patient.

method:
/'mɛθəd/ n. Syn. manner; way; mode
orderly procedure or process; regular manner of doing anything
She told us a simple method for making a pie crust.

migrate:
/maɪ'greɪt/;/'maɪgreɪt/ v.
move from one country or region to another and settle there
Many Germans chose to migrate to South America in the mid-19th century.

military:
/'mɪlɪtərɪ/;/-tɛrɪ/ a. Syn. soldiery; militia
pertaining to soldiers, to arms, or to war; of whole body of soldiers
In some countries all the young men have to do a year's military service.

minimal:
/'mɪnɪm(ə)l/ a.
the fewest; the least possible
In order to make it work, you need a certain minimal area of collective surface.

minimise:
/'mɪnɪmaɪz/ v. Syn. minimize
reduce to the smallest possible amount, extent, size, or degree
Some of them wish only to minimise the number of abortions performed, others will be satisfied with nothing less than reducing the number to zero regardless of the consequences.

minimum:
/'mɪnɪməm/ a.
the smallest possible quantity
The questions range from simple tests of knowledge such as - what's the minimum age for buying alcohol?

ministry:
/'mɪnɪstrɪ/ n.
act of serving; government department, at the administrative level normally headed by a minister
The ministry has tried to develop a management strategy this year but it has not been implemented because of scarce resources.

minor:
/'maɪnə(r)/ a.
of lesser importance or stature or rank; not of legal age; limited in size or scope
These two books had minor differences, reading one of them is enough.

mode:
/moʊd/ n. Syn. manner; method; style
prevailing style; manner; way of doing something; fashion or style
The main mode is the regular one that keeps the vehicle's straight ahead motion in check.

modify:
/'mɒdɪfaɪ/ v. Syn. alter; change
alter; change
If you want to modify an existing listing, make sure the url entered below exactly matches the one that appears in our directory.

monitor:
/'mɒnɪtə(r)/ v. Syn. observe; watch; locate
observe; watch; keep an eye on
In this city, religious police, government officials and squads of schoolboys monitor women and girls' behavior and appearance.

motive:
/'moʊtɪv/ n. Syn. intention; purpose
emotion, desire, physiological need; that which gives purpose and direction to behavior
Pat's main motive is to keep the racial divide alive.

mutual:
/'mju:tjʊəl/ a. Syn. interactive; shared
common to or shared by two or more parties; shared
The main thrust is to make progress on practical issues - with mutual trade and business at the top of the agenda.

negate:
/nɪ'geɪt/ v. Syn. nullify; deny
cancel out; make ineffective or invalid; deny
A sudden surge of adrenalin can negate the effects of fatigue: there's nothing like a good shock to wake you up.

network:
/'nɛtwɜrk/ n.
any system of lines or channels crossing like the fabric of a net; complex, interconnected group or system
At USA the network of railroads hasn't increased in past decades.

neutral:
/'nju:tr(ə)l/;/nu:-/ a. Syn. impartial
impartial; not supporting one side over another
Edwards will remain neutral until after "Super Tuesday", then he will endorse Hillary.

nevertheless:
/nɛvəðə'lɛs/ ad.
not the less; notwithstanding; in spite of that; yet
There was no label this time with the words "DRINK ME," but nevertheless she uncorked it and put it to her lips.

nonetheless:
/nʌnðə'lɛs/ ad.
anyway; however
India hasn't been as successful, but the U.N. says it is nonetheless on track to cut its poverty rate from 51 percent in 1990 to 24 percent in 2015.

norm:
/nɔ:m/ n. Syn. convention; standard; rule
convention; standard; rule
This was revoked after the scandals of the clean hands bribery scandal which caused a political earthquake at the time in a country where it had become the norm for businessmen to bribe politicians, but now it is back to square one.

notion:
/'noʊʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. idea; conception
general or universal conception; belief or opinion
With all her knowledge of history, Alice had no very clear notion how long ago anything had happened.

notwithstanding:
/nɒtwɪð'stændɪŋ/ ad.
nevertheless; in spite of
The danger of a third world war, present appearances notwithstanding, is not imminent.

nuclear:
/'nju:klɪə(r)/;/'nu:-/ a. Syn. atomic
of, relating to, or forming a nucleus of an atom; pertaining to, or using nuclear weapons
The resolution states that CPS Energy should invest further in nuclear energy.

objective:
/əb'dʒɛktɪv/ a. Syn. fair
not influenced by emotions; having actual existence or reality
Even though he was her son, she tried to be objective about his behavior.

obtain:
/əb'teɪn/ v. Syn. acquire; get; procure; derive
get hold of; gain possession of; acquire, in any way
Congress exceeded its constitutional authority by requiring that all Americans obtain health insurance or pay a tax penalty.

obvious:
/'ɒbvɪəs/ a. Syn. evident; apparent
exposed; easily discovered; plain
It is a stone pillar set up where four roads meet: whitewashed, I suppose, to be more obvious at a distance and in darkness.

occupy:
/'ɒkjʊpaɪ/ v. Syn. inhabit
inhabit; live in a certain place; be present in; be inside of
Interestingly, many other Great War memorials also occupy busy.

occur:
/ə'kɜr(r)/ v. Syn. happen
take place; be found to exist ; come to one's mind
Global warming can occur from a variety of causes, both natural and human induced.

odd:
/ɒd/ a. Syn. bizarre; strange; unusual
not easily explained; beyond from the usual or expected; not divisible by two
It is odd that his name is never mentioned.

offset:
/'ɒfsɛt/;/'ɔ:fsɛt/ v.
counterbalance, counteract, or compensate for; balance
He raised his prices to offset the increased cost of materials.

ongoing:
/'ɒngoʊɪŋg/ a.
continuous; existing
Now, don't forget on top of that you've still got the day-to-day waste being generated so it's an ongoing problem.

option:
/'ɒpʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. alternative; choice; selection
act of choosing; power or freedom to choose
The Euro made its debut in the financial markets three years ago and it has been an option for any non-cash transaction ever since.

orient:
/'ɔ:rɪənt/ v. Syn. direct; guide; lead
focus toward; determine position with reference to another point; locate to face the east
Philip spent his first day in Denver to orient the telescope toward the moon.

outcome:
/'aʊtkʌm/ n. Syn. result; effect
result; end or consequence; result of a random trial
South Africa praised the outcome of the election as another indication of Africa's growing commitment to multi-party democracy.

output:
/'aʊtpʊt/ n. Syn. production; product
act or process of producing; production; amount produced during a certain time
Oman's oil output is not as high as some of its neighbors.

overall:
/oʊvər'ɔ:l/ a. Syn. general; comprehensive
general; comprehensive; from one end to the other; including everything
They are beginning the assessment of the overall need for reconstruction and rehabilitation.

overlap:
/oʊvə'læp/ n.
representation of common ground between two things; extend over and cover a part of
He warned of the potential for gap, overlap and duplication.

overseas:
/oʊvə'si:z/ ad.
beyond or across the sea; abroad
He lived overseas for many years.

panel:
/'pæn(ə)l/ n. Syn. board
a group of people gathered for a special purpose; small board or pad
The Constitutional Court, a senior panel of judges often accused of siding with Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, has voted to annul his third election victory, according to one of the judges.

paradigm:
/'pærədaɪm/ n. Syn. model; example; pattern
one that serves as a pattern or model; system of assumptions, concepts, values, and practices that constitutes a way of viewing reality
Pavlov's experiment in which he trains a dog to salivate on hearing a bell is a paradigm of the conditioned-response experiment in behavioral psychology.

paragraph:
/'pærəgrɑrf/;/'pærəgræf/ n.
distinct division of written or printed matter that begins on a new, usually indented line
After you read the next paragraph, you'll be offered the choice of three possible decisions.

parallel:
/'pærəlɛl/ n. Syn. similarity; analogy
make or place something to another's side; of or relating to multiple operations at same time; not intersecting
Parallel processing is very common in today's computer.

parameter:
/pə'ræmɪtə(r)/ n.
characteristic or feature that distinguishes something from others
Security's critical parameter is the ratio of workers to retirees.

participate:
/pɑr'tɪsɪpeɪt/ v.
take part in something; share in something
Everyone in the class is expected to participate in the discussion.

partner:
/'pɑrtnə(r)/ n.
person who is a member of a partnership; associate who works with others toward a common goal
She has a live-in partner, is 39 years old, and has three children.

passive:
/'pæsɪv/ a. Syn. compliant; inactive
lacking in energy or will; peacefully resistant in response to injustice
Mahatma Gandhi urged his followers to pursue a program of passive resistance as he felt that it was more effective than violence.

perceive:
/pə'si:v/ v. Syn. sense; detect
become aware of through the senses; detect
And though I don't comprehend how it is, I perceive you have acquired a degree of regard for that foolish little child Adele, too; and even for simple dame Fairfax?

percent:
/pə'sɛnt/ n.
out of each hundred; per hundred; one part in a hundred
She has invested a large percent of her salary.

period:
/'pɪərɪəd/ n.
duration, continuance, term; end of something
Death put a period to his endeavors.

persist:
/pə'sɪst/ v. Syn. continue; insist; persevere
continue; insist; persevere
Why, when studies show that cell phone use, and especially texting, while driving impairs drivers more than drinking, do so many people persist in combining these lethal behaviors?

perspective:
/pə'spɛktɪv/ n. Syn. viewpoint; view
appearance of things; view, outlook, or vista
An essential fact that should put the debate in perspective is that Mary was released after less than four months.

phase:
/feɪz/ n. Syn. stage; moment
any distinct time period in a sequence of events; stage
But there's far less consensus on how much the EU might be willing to pay towards reconstruction in a post-war phase, now that it's clear that a conflict will not have United Nations approval.

phenomenon:
/fɪ'nɒmɪnən/;/-nɒn-/ n.
appearance; anything visible, in matter or spirit; extraordinary or very remarkable person, thing, or occurrence
International terrorism is not just a recent phenomenon.

philosophy:
/fɪ'lɒsəfɪ/ n.
body of highest truth; investigation of nature, causes, or principles of reality, knowledge, or values, based on logical reasoning
He holds a master's degree in philosophy from the University of Virginia and served as press secretary for Kucinich for President in 2004.

physical:
/'fɪzɪk(ə)l/ a.
relating to the body as distinguished from the mind or spirit
Because you know, every intelligent person knows, that the physical is the basis for the mental and the moral.

plus:
/plʌs/ a.
involving advantage or good; on the positive side or higher end of a scale
This company controls main gas resource plus many of the pipelines that supply it to Europe.

policy:
/'pɒlɪsɪ/ n.
settled method of government to administer; system of public or official administration
His overall Latin American policy is just as troubling so no country welcomes his visiting until now.

portion:
/'pɔ:ʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. part; section; segment
section or quantity within a larger thing; a part of a whole
The largest portion would go into the players' pockets, but the package included payments into a players' pension account and a donation to selected charities.

pose:
/poʊz/ v.
pretend to be someone you are not; assume a posture as for artistic purposes
We don't know the woman who pose for Leonardo so often.

positive:
/'pɒzɪtɪv/ a.
involving advantage or good ; greater than zero; very sure; confident
An executive involved in the meetings told that Mrs. Bush plans to write a positive book with a minimum of criticism.

potential:
/pə'tɛnʃ(ə)l/ a. Syn. possible; latent
existing in possibility; expected to become or be
The volume of unconventional gas isn't significant on a U. K. wide scale, supplying enough electricity for only 1,200 homes, but the potential is there, analysts say.

practitioner:
/præk'tɪʃənə(r)/ n.
someone engaged in a profession as law, medicine
The difference between the student and the practitioner is the difference between applying memory and application of judgement.

precede:
/prɪ'si:d/ v. Syn. antecede
come before; antecede
Most English adjectives precede the noun they modify.

precise:
/prɪ'saɪs/ a. Syn. exact; accurate
exact; clearly expressed; accurate or correct
How exactly, in precise detail, will he bring about this supposed unity?

predict:
/prɪ'dɪkt/ v. Syn. forecast; foretell
state, tell about, or make known in advance, especially on the basis of special knowledge
We're not trying to predict which markets will all of a sudden have double-digit growth in home prices.

predominant:
/prɪ'dɒmɪnənt/ a. Syn. principal; dominant; overpowering
most frequent or common; having superior power and influence
The predominant mood among policy-makers is optimism.

preliminary:
/prɪ'lɪmɪnərɪ/;/-nɛrɪ/ a. Syn. initial; introductory; preparatory
prior to or preparing for the main matter; introductory
According to preliminary, unofficial figures, a large majority, some 84 percent, voted in favor.

presume:
/prɪ'zju:m/;/-zu:m/ v. Syn. suppose
take for granted as true in absence of proof; venture without authority
We are asked to presume that she is innocent.

previous:
/'pri:vɪəs/ a.
existing or occurring before something else
That brings the total number of storms to 26, roundly beating the previous record of 21, set 70 years ago.

primary:
/'praɪmərɪ/ a. Syn. principal; prime; fundamental
of first rank or importance or value; essential or basic
Many ordinary Iraqis appreciated that the primary UN role was humanitarian.

prime:
/praɪm/ a. Syn. primary; principal; chief
first in excellence, quality, or value; at the best stage; peak; first in degree or rank; chief
Jordan tonight announced that his group arrested the prime suspect in last week's rocket attack.

principal:
/'prɪnsɪp(ə)l/ a. Syn. chief; main
highest in rank, authority, character, importance, or degree
Lots of the principal people gathered around the king, to let him see they was on his side.

principle:
/'prɪnsɪp(ə)l/ n.
basic truth or law or assumption; rule or law of nature; rule of personal conduct
This decision was based on principle rather than expediency.

prior:
/'praɪə(r)/ a. Syn. former; antecedent; anterior; previous
preceding in the order of time; former; previous
All the arrangements should have been completed prior to our departure.

priority:
/praɪ'ɒrɪtɪ/;/-ɔ:r-/ n. Syn. preference; precedence
preceding in time, importance, or urgency
The company says its number one priority is restoring profits, not gaining market share at any price.

proceed:
/prə'si:d/ n. Syn. continue; advance
follow a certain course; move ahead; travel onward
'The trial cannot proceed,' said the King in a very grave voice, 'until all the jurymen are back in their proper places.'

process:
/'proʊsɛs/;/'prɒsɛs/ n. Syn. progress; advance; procedure
act of proceeding; continued forward movement; a series of actions
In short, I began the process of ruining myself in the received style, like any other spoony.

professional:
/prə'fɛʃən(ə)l/ a.
engaged in, or suitable for a profession
Medical workers on trial face criminal charges that range from professional recklessness to illegal sale of donor blood.

prohibit:
/prə'hɪbɪt/;/'proʊ-/ v. Syn. ban; taboo; forbid
ban; taboo; forbid
The U.S. Supreme Court has never ruled that public schools must prohibit the distribution of candy canes or Christmas cards.

project:
/'prɒdʒɛkt/ n. Syn. program; plan; scheme
any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted; program; plan; scheme
The project is run by the top-secret Phantom Works in Seattle, the part of the company which handles Boeing's most sensitive programmes.

promote:
/prə'moʊt/ v. Syn. publicize; advance
help to flourish; advance in rank; publicize
Founder of the Children's Defense Fund, Marian Wright Edelman and her team ceaselessly promote the welfare of young people everywhere.

proportion:
/prə'pɔ:ʃ(ə)n/ n. Syn. amounts; percentage
percentage; quotient obtained when a part is divided by the whole; part considered in relation to the whole
The requirements grow linearly, in proportion to the number of folk.

prospect:
/'prɒspɛkt/ n. Syn. possibility; hope; outlook
possibility of future success; belief about future
The number of people affected and displaced has increased since the conflict, and at the moment there seems little prospect for them to return to villages.

protocol:
/'proʊtəkɒl/;/-kɔ:l/ n.
code of correct conduct ; rules governing socially acceptable behavior; record of transaction
When it comes to weddings, the protocol is actual similar to other churches.

psychology:
/saɪ'kɒlədʒɪ/;/sɪ-/ n.
science that deals with mental processes and behavior
One of the things we always focus on in psychology is that you have to separate the behavior from the person.

publication:
/pʌblɪ'keɪʃ(ə)n/ n.
act or process of publishing printed matter; communication of information to public
This publication is accompanied by a beautiful exhibition in the van Gogh museum in Amsterdam.

publish:
/'pʌblɪʃ/ v. Syn. "It is an honor to publish this extraordinary book," said Gibson.
make public; make known to mankind, or to people in general
Only in 1687 did he at last publish his new theory.

purchase:
/'pɜrtʃəs/ n.
act or an instance of buying; something bought
Rules can differ depending whether the purchase is a residence or an investment.

pursue:
/pə'sju:/;/-'su:/ v.
follow in; go in search of or hunt for
They will bring together 165 researchers from 19 countries to pursue a range of innovative strategies.

qualitative:
/'kwɒlɪtətɪv/;/-teɪtɪv/ a.
relating to quality; having the character of quality
A painstaking course in qualitative and quantitative analysis by John Wing gave me an appreciation of the need for, and beauty of, accurate measurement.

quote:
/kwoʊt/ v.
cite or repeat a passage from; repeat or copy the words of another
He said he could quote several instances of this behavior.

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