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Saturday, 11 May 2013

IELTS Reading Help



                           Overview
The Reading module lasts 60 minutes. The reading passages and the questions will be given to you on a Question Paper. You can write on the Question Paper, but you can't take it from the room.
You will write your answers on the Answer Sheet. Unlike the Listening module, you will have no time to transfer your answers. You will have only 60 minutes to read the passages, answer the questions, and mark your answers.
The Reading modules on the Academic and the General Training versions of the IELTS are different.
Reading Module: Academic Reading

Time
Tasks
Topics
Sources
60
minutes
Read three
passages and
answer 40
questions
General interest
topics written for a
general audience
Journals,
magazines, books,
newspapers


Reading Module: General Reading

Time
Tasks
Topics
Sources
60
minutes
Read three
passages and
answer 40
questions
Basic social English
Training topics
General interest
Notices, flyers,
timetables, documents,
newspaper articles,
instructions, manuals




Question Types
There are many types of questions used in the Reading module. You should be familiar with these types.
Multiple-choice questions
Short-answer questions
Completing sentences
Completing notes, summary, tables, flowcharts
Labeling a diagram
Choosing headings for paragraphs or sections of a text
Locating information
Identifying points of view
Identifying writer's claims
Classifying information
Matching lists or phrases
You will have a chance to practice the tasks of these different question types in Target 5.


Reading Tips
BEFORE YOU TAKE THE TEST

1. Read as much as you can in English.
2. Keep a notebook of the words you learn.
3. Try to write these words in a sentence and put these sentences into a paragraph.
4. Learn words in context-not from a word list.
5. Know the types of questions found on the IELTS test.
6. Know the type of information sought on the IELTS test.
7. Know how to make predictions.
8. Know how to skim and scan, to look quickly for information.
DURING THE TEST

1. Read the title and any headings first. Make predictions about the topic.
2. Look over the questions quickly. Make predictions about content and organization.
3. Read the passage at a normal speed. Ron't get stuck on parts you don't understand.
4. When you answer the questions, don't spend too much time on the ones you don't feel sure about. Make a guess and go on.
5. After you have answered all the questions, you can go back and check the ones you aren't sure about.
6. Don't spend more than 20 minutes on each passage.

IELTS READING SKILLS

In order to understand a reading passage, you need to understand the context of a passage. You need to have a clue about the topic. When you pick up a paper to read, you scan the headlines and choose an arti¬cle that interests you. The clues in the newspaper (headlines, graphics, photos) catch your eye and give you a context.
A passage on the IELTS is given to you; you did not choose to read it. There are few clues. You do not know what it is about. It may or may not interest you. Yet in order to understand it, you need some clues to help you understand the passage. Without the clues, you will not understand it very well. To score welt on the IELTS, you should determine what you know and what you need to know.

When you look at a passage, you must make some predictions about the passage.

What is the passage about? What is the main idea? Who are the characters? When are things taking place? Where is it happening? Why is it important?
You wanr to know who, what, when, where, and why.

In this section you will learn how the following can give you the answers to: Who? What? When? Where? and Why?
Using the first paragraph
Using the topic sentences Using specific details
Using the questions and answers

IELTS Reading - Target #1

Using the First Paragraph to Make Predictions
The first paragraphs of a passage can help you make predictions about the context of a passage.
The first paragraph often contains
the topic sentence (a summary of the main idea of the passage)
a definition of the topic
the author's opinion
clues to the organization of the passage
If you understand the first paragraph, you will understand the topic, the author's opinion (if any), and where to look for information within the passage.
Read this first paragraph of a passage on the illness, obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCR) is clinically diagnosed as an anxiety disorder. This disorder affects up to 4 percent of adults and children. People who suffer from this debilitat¬ing disorder have distressing and obsessive thoughts, which usually cause them to perform repetitive behaviors' such as counting silently or washing their hands. Though OCR suffer¬ers understand that their obsessions are unrealistic, they find it stressful to put these intru¬sive thoughts out of their minds. Those who suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder develop strict behavioral' patterns that become extremely time-consuming and begin to interfere with daily routines. Many people with OCR delay seeking treatment because they are ashamed of their own thoughts and behavior.
Topic Sentence
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is clinically diagnosed as an anxiety disorder.

Definition of Topic
People who suffer from this debilitating disorder have distressing and obsessive thoughts, which usually cause them to perform repetitive behaviors.

Author's Opinion
None given.

Organizational Clues
The author may discuss
• Obsessive behavior,
• Stress of sufferers, and/or
• Treatment


PRACTICE 1

Read these introductory paragraphs to other passages. Make predictions about the topics using these first paragraphs.
1. The spread of wildfire is a natural phenomenon that occurs throughout the world and is especially common in forested areas of North America, Australia, and Europe. Locations that receive plenty of rainfall but also experience periods of intense heat or drought are particularly susceptible to wildfires. As plant matter dries out, it becomes brittle and highly flammable. In this way, many wildfires are seasonal, ignited by natural causes, most specifically lightning. However, human carelessness and vandalism also account for thousands of wildfires around the globe each year. To gain a clear understanding of how wildfires spread, it is necessary to analyze what it takes to both create and control these fires.
2. The term "bird brain" has long been a common means of expressing doubts about a person's intelligence. In reality, birds may actually be a great deal more intelligent than humans have given them credit for. For a long time, scientists considered birds to be of lesser intelligence because the cerebral cortex, the part of the brain that humans and other animals use for intelligence, is relatively small in size. Now scientists understand that birds actually use a different part of their brain, the hyperstriatum, for intelligence. Observations of different species of birds, both in the wild and in captivity, have shown a great deal of evidence of high levels of avian intelligence.
3. In 1834, a little girl was born in New Bedford, Massachusetts. She would grow up to become one of the richest women in the world. Per name was Petty Green, but she was known to many as the Witch of Wall Street.
Answer Key
1. Topic Sentence. The spread of wildfire is a natural phenomenon that occurs throughout the world and is especially common in forested areas of North America, Australia, and Europe.

Definition of Topic. Locations that receive plenty of rainfall but also experience periods of intense heat or drought are particularly susceptible to wildfires.

Author's Opinion. None given.

Organizational Clues. Author may discuss
• How wildfires start
• How to control wildfires
• Wildfires as a global problem
2. Topic Sentence. In reality, birds may actually be a great deaf more intelligent than humans have given them credit for.

Definition of Topic. For a tong time, scientists considered birds to be of lesser intelligence because the cerebral cortex, the part of the brain that humans and other animals use for intelligence, is relatively small in size.

Author's Opinion. None given.

Organizational Clues. Author may discuss
• Misunderstandings about the intelligence of birds . The anatomy of a bird's brain
• Evidence of avian intelligence
3. Topic Sentence. She would grow up to become one of the richest women in the world.

Definition of Topic. Per name was Petty Green, but she was known to many as the Witch of Wall Street. Author's Opinion. None given.

Organizational Clues. Author may discuss
• Petty Green's early years
• How Petty Green got rich
• Why Petty Green had a nickname

IELTS Reading - Target #2

Using the Topic Sentence to Make Predictions
Every paragraph has a key sentence called a topic sentence. This topic sentence explains what a paragraph about. It is the general idea of a paragraph. If you understand the general idea, you can look for the specific details which support the idea.
Read the second paragraph of the passage on OCR. The first sentence happens to be the topic sentence.
OCR sufferers experience worries that are both unreasonable and excessive and that act as a constant source of internal stress. Fear of dirt and contamination are very common obsessive thoughts. The obsession with orderliness and symmetry is also common. In other cases, persistent thoughts are centered on doubts, such as whether or not a door is locked or a stove is turned off. Impulses, such as the urge to swear in public or to pull a fire alarm, are other types of OCR symptoms. In order to be diagnosed with OCR, a sufferer must exhibit obsessions and/or compulsions that take up a considerable amount of time (at least one hour per day).
Topic Sentence
OCR sufferers experience worries that are both unreasonable and excessive and that act as a constant source of internal stress.

Questions to Ask Yourself
• What are unreasonable worries?
• What are excessive worries?

PRACTICE 2


Read these paragraphs. Underline the topic sentence. Ask one or two questions about the Topic sentence.
1. To combat excessive thoughts and impulses, most OCR sufferers perform certain repetitive rituals that they believe will relieve their anxiety. These compulsions can be either mental or behavioral in nature. Common rituals include excessive checking, washing, counting, and praying. Over time, OCR sufferers attach strict rules to their compulsions. For example, a woman who is obsessed with cleanliness might wash her hands three times before having a meal in order to get the thought of the dirty dishes or silverware out of her mind. However, in many cases, the compulsions aren't related to the obsession at all. A man obsessed with the image of dead animals might count silently up to 500 or touch a specific chair over and over in order to block the images. Holding onto objects that would normally be discarded, such as newspapers and empty containers, is another common compulsion.
2. OCR symptoms generally begin between the age of 10 and 24 and continue indefinitely until a person seeks treatment. A child's upbringing does not seem to be part of the cause of the disorder, though stress can make the symptoms stronger. The underlying causes of OCR have been researched greatly and point to a number of different genetic factors. While studies show that OCR and its related anxiety disorders are often passed down through families, the specific symptoms for each family member are rarely the same. For example, a mother who is obsessed with order may have a son who can't stop thinking about a single word or number.
3. Research on OCR sufferers has found certain physiological trends. In particular, many studies show an overactivity of blood circulation in certain areas of the brain. As a result of this increase in blood flow, the serotoninergic system, which regulates emotions, is unable to function effectively. Studies have also shown that OCR sufferers have less serotonin than the average person. This type of abnormality is also observed in Tourette syndrome and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder. People who developed tics as children are found to be more susceptible to OCR as well. Many reports of OCR point to infections that can trigger the disorder, namely streptococcal infections. It is believed that a case of childhood strep throat can elicit a response from the immune system that produces certain neuropsychlatric disorders, such as OCR.
Answer Key
1. Topic Sentence. To combat excessive thoughts and impulses, most OCR sufferers perform certain repet-itive rituals that they believe will relieve their anxiety.

Questions to Ask Yourself
• What types of rituals do they perform?
• How does this help them?

2. Topic Sentence. A child's. upbringing does not seem to be part of the cause of the disorder, though stress can make the symptoms stronger.

Questions to Ask Yourself
• the disorder present at birth?
• Are there outside factors involved?
• What leads parents to seek treatment?

3. Topic Sentence. Research on OCR sufferers has found certain physiological trends.

Questions to Ask Yourself
• What part of the body does it affect?
• What are some common trends?
• What can parents look for?

IELTS Reading - Target #3

Looking for Specific Details
When you read, you first want to know the general idea. Next you read for specific ideas. The author suplies specific details to support his or her ideas. Knowing where to look for these supporting statements will p you answer questions on the IELTS.

When you identified the topic sentences in Practice 2, you found the general idea of the paragraph. en you asked your questions about the topic sentence, you expected the specific details would be the answers.
Read the second paragraph of a passage. The specific details follow the topic sentence.
OCR sufferers experience worries that are both unreasonable and excessive and that act as a constant source of internal stress. Fear of dirt and contamination are very common obsessive thoughts. The obsession with orderliness and symmetry is also common. In other cases, persistent thoughts are centered on doubts, such as whether or not a door is locked or a stove is turned off. Impulses, such as the urge to swear in public or to pull a fire alarm, are other types of OCR symptoms. In order to be diagnosed with OCD, a sufferer must exhibit obsessions and/or compulsions that take up a considerable amount of time (at least one hour per day).
Topic Sentence
OCD sufferers experience worries that are both unreasonable and excessive and that act as a constant source of internal stress.

Questions to Ask Yourself
• What are unreasonable worries?
• What are excessive worries?
Supporting Details
• Fear of dirt and contamination
• The obsession with orderliness and symmetry
• Persistent doubts
• Impulses
PRACTICE 3

Read these paragraphs again. Pay attention to the topic sentence. Underline the details that support the topic sentence.
1. To combat excessive thoughts and impulses, most OCR sufferers perform certain repetitive rituals that they believe will relieve their anxiety. These compulsions can be either mental or behavioral in nature. Common rituals include excessive checking, washing, counting, and praying. Over time, OCR sufferers attach strict rules to their compulsions. For example, a woman who is obsessed with cleanliness might wash her hands three times before having a meal in order to get the thought of the dirty dishes or silverware out of her mind. However, in many cases, the compulsions aren't related to the obsession at all. A man obsessed with the image of dead animals might count silently up to 500 or touch a specific chair over and over in order to block the images. Holding onto objects that would normally be discarded, such as newspapers and empty containers, is another common compulsion.
2. OCR symptoms generally begin between the age of 10 and 24 and continue indefinitely until a person seeks treatment. A child's upbringing does not seem to be part of the cause of the disorder, though stress can make the symptoms stronger. The underlying causes of OCR have been researched greatly and point to a number of different genetic factors. While studies show that OCR and its related anxiety disorders are often passed down through families, the specific symptoms for each family member are rarely the same. For example, a mother who is obsessed with order may have a son who can't stop thinking about a single word or number.
3. Research on OCR sufferers has found certain physiological trends. In particular, many studies show an overactivity of blood circulation in certain areas of the brain. As a result of this increase in blood flow, the serotoninergic system, which regulates emotions, is unable to function effectively. Studies have also shown that OCR sufferers have less serotonin than the average person. This type of abnormality is also observed in Tourette syndrome and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder. People who developed tics as children are found to be more susceptible to OCR as well. Many reports of OCR point to infections that can trigger the disorder, namely streptococcal infections. It is believed that a case of childhood strep throat can elicit a response from the immune system that produces certain neuropsychlatric disorders, such as OCR.
Answer Key
1. Supporting Details

• Compulsions can be mental or physical
• Examples include: checking, hand washing, disturbing images
• Compulsions and obsessions may or may not be related

2. Supporting Details

• Most cases are genetic
• Stress can add to the problem
• Many members of the family may have OCR

3. Supporting Details

• Over activity of blood in the brain
• Less serotonin
• Linked to other disorders such as Tourette Syndrome and ADHD

IELTS Reading - Target #4

Analyzing the Questions and Answers
You made predictions about the content based on the first paragraph, the topic sentences, and the specific tails. Now let's look at how the questions or statements in your Reading test booklet can help you narrow these predictions and choose the correct answer.

To help you answer the questions in your Reading test booklet, take a few seconds to look over the questions or statements. Sometimes the questions are before the passage; sometimes they come after the passage. Ask yourself: Who? What? When? Where? and Why? By looking for the answers to these general questions, you will discover what you know and what you need to know. When you read the passage, you can test the predictions you made.

As you look at the question or statement and answer options,. look for the key words. Key words may give you a clue to the context. They may help you predict what the passage is about. Look at these typical IELTS comprehension questions.

Questions 1-8
Complete the summary of the reading passage below.

Choose your answers from the box below and write them in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet. There are more words than spaces so you will not use them all.

checking       doctor       upbringing       inherited       reduce       cause      

treatment       throw away       unreasonable

obsession       control       compulsive       diagnosis       counting



1 .......... thoughts, doubts, and fears that they cannot 2 .......... OCR sufferers develop certain ways of acting in order to 3 .......... their fears. For example, being afraid of dirt is a common 4 .........., which may lead to excessive hand washing. Or, an OCR sufferer who worries about a locked door may engage in excessive 5 .......... Some OCR sufferers keep things that other people would 6 .......... Research shows that OCR may be a disorder that is 7 .......... though members of the same family don't always show the same symptoms. It is also possible that certain infections may 8 .......... the disorder.

First identify the key words. (These with red background.) Then look for these words in the passage. You will know where to look because you have made predictions using topic sentences and specific details.
Notice the words close to the circled words in the passage. Do they help you complete the summary above?
PRACTICE 4

Identify the key words in these questions and circle them in the questions and in the reading passage on the next page. Notice the words close to the circled words in the passage. Do they help you complete the questoils below?

Questions 9-16
Do the following statements agree with the information in the reading passage?

In boxes 9-16 write
TRUE            if the statement is true according to the passage
FALSE          if the statement contradicts the passage
NOT GIVEN    if there is no information about this in the passage
9 OCR often results from the way a child is raised.

10 Stress can have an effect on OCR.

11 OCR sufferers are deficient in serotonin.

12 Obsessive-compulsive disorder usually begins after the age of 17.

13 Many OCR patients prefer psychotherapy to medication.

14 OCR is very difficult to treat.

15 Many OCR sufferers keep their problem a secret.

16 Antibiotics can be used to treat OCR.

You should spend 20 minutes on Questions 9-16, which are based on the reading passage below.
Obsessive-compulsive Disorder
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCR) is clinically diagnosed as an anxiety disorder and affects up to 4 percent of adults and children. People who suffer from this debilitating disorder have distressing and obsessive thoughts, which usually cause them to perform repetitive behaviors such as counting silently or washing their hands. Though OCR sufferers understand that their obsessions are unrealistic, they find it stressful to put these intrusive thoughts out of their minds. Those who suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder develop strict behavioral patterns that become extremely time-consuming and begin to interfere with daily routines. Many people with OCR delay seeking treatment because they are ashamed of their own thoughts and behavior.
OCD sufferers experience worries that are both unreasonable and excessive and that act as a constant source of internal stress. Fear of dirt and contamination are very common obsessive thoughts. The obsession with orderliness and symmetry is also common. In other cases, persistent thoughts are centered on doubts, such as whether or not a door is locked or a stove is turned off. Impulses, such as the urge to swear in public or to pull a fire alarm, are other types of OCR symptoms. to order to be diagnosed with OCR, a sufferer must exhibit obsessions and/or compulsions that take up a considerable amount of time (at least one hour per day).
To combat excessive thoughts and impulses, most OCR sufferers perform certain repetitive rituals that they believe will relieve their anxiety. These compulsions can be either mental or behavioral in nature. Common rituals include excessive checking, washing, counting, and praying. Over time, OCR sufferers attach strict rules to their compulsions. For example, a woman who is obsessed with cleanliness might wash her hands three times before having a meal in order to get the thought of the dirty dishes or silverware out of her mind. However, in many cases, the compulsions aren't related to the obsession at all. A man obsessed with the image of dead animals might count silently up to 500 or touch a specific chair over and over in order to block the images. Holding onto objects that would normally be discarded, such as newspapers and empty con-tainers, is another common compulsion.
OCR symptoms generally begin between the age of 10 and 24 and continue indefinitely until a person seeks treatment. A child's upbringing does not seem to be part of the cause of the disorder, though stress can make the symptoms stronger. The underlying causes of OCR have been researched greatly and point to a number of different genetic factors. While studies show that OCR and its related anxiety disorders are often passed down through families, the specific symptoms for each family member are rarely the same. For example, a mother who is obsessed with order may have a son who can't stop thinking about a single word or number.
Research on OCR sufferers has found certain physiological trends. In particular, many studies show an overactivity of blood circulation in certain areas of the brain. As a result of this increase in blood flow, the serotoninergic system, which regulates emotions, is unable to function effectively. Studies have also shown that OCR sufferers have less serotonin than the average person. This type of abnormality is also observed in Tourette syndrome and Attention Reficit Hyperactive Disorder. People who developed tics as children are found to be more susceptible to OCR as well. Many reports of OCR point to infections that can trigger the disorder, namely streptococcal infections. It is believed that a case of childhood strep throat can elicit a response from the immune system that produces certain neuropsychiatric disorders, such as OCR.
Because OCR sufferers tend to be so secretive about their symptoms, they often put off treatment for many years. The average OCR sufferer waits about 17 years before receiving medical attention. As with many anxiety disorders, early diagnosis and proper medication can lessen many of the symptoms and allow people to live fairly normal lives. Most treatment plans for OCR involve a combination of medication and psychotherapy. Both cognitive and behavioral therapies are used to teach patients about their disorder and work through the anxiety. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are prescribed to increase the brain's concentration of serotonin. This medication successfully reduces the symptoms in many OCR sufferers in a short amount of time. For cases when OCR is linked to streptococcal infection, antibiotic therapy is sometimes all that is needed.
Answer Key
Key Words in Statements 9-16: (Answers may vary.) child, stress, serotonin, age 17, psychotherapy, medication, treat, secret, antibiotics


2. unreasonable. Paragraph 1 states that, "OCR sufferers understand that their obsessions are unrealistic."

3. control. Paragraph 1 states that "they find it stressful to put these intrusive thoughts out of their minds.

4. reduce. The first sentence of paragraph 3 states: "To combat excessive thoughts and impulses, OCR sufferers perform certain repetitive rituals that they believe will relieve their anxiety."

5. obsession. Paragraph 2 states that "Fear of dirt and contamination are very common obsessive thoughts."

6. checking. Paragraph 3 states that "Common rituals include excessive checking."

7. throw away. The last sentence in paragraph 3 states that, "Holding onto objects that would normally discarded, such as newspapers and containers, is another common compulsion."

8. inherited. Paragraph 4 states that "a number of different genetic factors" have been found as underlying causes of the disease.

9. cause. Paragraph 5 gives an example of an illness (steep throat) that is thought to be the cause behind some OCR cases.


10. False. Paragraph 4 states: "A child's upbringing does not seem to be part of the cause of the disorder though stress can make the symptoms stronger. The underlying causes of OCR have been researched greatly, and point to a number of different genetic factors."

11. True. Paragraph 4 states: "A child's upbringing does not seem to be part of the cause of the disorder though stress can make the symptoms stronger."

12. True. Paragraph 5 states: "Studies have also shown that OCR sufferers have less seeotonin than average person."

13. False. Paragraph 4 states: "OCR symptoms generally begin between the age of 10 and 24 and continue indefinitely until a person seeks treatment."

14. Not Given. Paragraph 6 mentions both psychotherapy and medication but does not discuss which o patients prefer.

15. False. Paragraph 6 discusses different treatment options, and states that, "early diagnosis and pro medication can lessen many of the symptoms and allow people to live fairly normal lives."

16. True. Paragraph 6 begins with this sentence: "Because OCR sufferers tend to be so secretive a their symptoms, they often put off treatment foe many years."

17. True. The final sentence in Paragraph 6 indicates that antibiotics can be used in special cases of OCD "Foe cases when OCR is linked to streptococcal infection, antibiotic therapy is sometimes all that needed."

IELTS Reading - Target #5

Identifying the Tasks
There are many types of questions on the IELTS Reading Test. It is important to know what the question is asking you to do.
Question types:

Multiple-choice questions
Short-answer questions
Completing sentences
Completing notes, summary, tables, flowcharts
Labeling a diagram
Choosing headings for paragraphs or sections of a text
Choosing three or four answers from a list
Yes, No, True, False, or Not Given questions
Classifying information
Matching lists or phrases
The questions for the practice reading passages on the next page are labeled. Be familiar with the question types so you can quickly complete the task and answer the question correctly.
Answer Key
Topic Sentence. The South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, more commonly referred to as the ZuluKingdom, is named after the Zulu people who have inhabited the area since the late 1400s.

Questions to Ask Yourself
Who are the Zulu people?
What is the history behind this clan?
What are they known for?

Supporting Details
Large South African ethnic group
Region explored by Europeans
Zulu wear traditional jewelry/jewellry and clothing
Beadwork is important to the culture

Analyzing the Questions
1. Where?
2. Where?
3. Who?
4. Where?
5. When?
6. How many?
7. Who? Where? Key Words: British
8. What? Key Words: Henry Frances Flan
9. What? Key Words: precious stones
10. What? Why? Key Words: daily lives
11. What? Why? Key Words: gourds

  READ MORE BELOW...................

IELTS Reading Passage 1

Read the passage and answer the questions. Use your predicting skills. Note the type of questions:
Zulu Beadwork
The South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, more commonly referred to as the Zulu Kingdom, is named after the Zulu people who have inhabited the area since the late 1400s. KwaZulu translates to mean "Place of Heaven." "Natal" was the name the Portuguese explorers gave this region when they arrived in 1497. At that time, only a few Zulu clans occupied the area. By the late 1700s, the AmaZulu clan, meaning "People of Heaven," constituted a significant nation. Today the Zulu clan represents the largest ethnic group in South Africa, with at least 11 million people in the kingdom. The Zulu people are known around the world for their elaborate glass beadwork, which they wear not only in their traditional costumes but as part of their everyday apparel. It is possible to learn much about the culture of the Zulu clan through their beadwork.
The glass bead trade in the province of KwaZulu-Natal is believed to be a fairly recent industry. In 1824, an Englishman named Henry Francis Fynn brought glass beads to the region to sell to the African people. Though the British are not considered the first to introduce glass beads, they were a main source through which the Zulu people could access the merchandise they needed. Glass beads had already been manufactured by the Egyptians centuries earlier around the same time when glass was discovered. Some research points to the idea that Egyptians tried to fool South Africans with glass by passing it off as jewels similar in value to gold or ivory. Phoenician mariners brought cargoes of these beads to Africa along with other wares. Before the Europeans arrived, many Arab traders brought glass beads down to the southern countries via camelback. During colonization', the Europeans facilitated and monopolized the glass bead market, and the Zulu nation became even more closely tied to this art form.
The Zulu people were not fooled into believing that glass beads were precious stones but, rather, used the beads to establish certain codes and rituals in their society. In the African tradition, kings were known to wear beaded regalia so heavy that they required the help of attendants to get out of their thrones. Zulu beadwork is involved in every realm of society, from religion and politics to family and marriage. Among the Zulu women, the craft of beadwork is used as an educational tool as well as a source of recreation and fashion. Personal adornment items include jewelry, skirts, neckbands, and aprons. Besides clothing and accessories, there are many other beaded objects in the Zulu culture, such as bead-covered gourds, which are carried around by women who are having fertility problems. Most importantly, however, Zulu beadwork is a source of communication. In the Zulu tradition, beads are a part of the language with certain words and symbols that can be easily read. A finished product is considered by many artists and collectors to be extremely poetic.
 The code behind Zulu beadwork is relatively basic and extremely resistant to change. A simple triangle is the geometric shape used in almost all beaded items. A triangle with the apex pointing downward signifies an unmarried man, while one with the tip pointing upward is worn by an unmarried woman. Married women wear items with two triangles that form a diamond shape, and married men signify their marital status with two triangles that form an hourglass shape. Colors are also significant, though slightly more complicated since each color can have a negative and a positive meaning. Educated by their older sisters, young Zulu girls quickly learn how to send the appropriate messages to a courting male. Similarly, males learn how to interpret the messages and how to wear certain beads that express their interest in marriage.
The codes of the beads are so strong that cultural analysts fear that the beadwork tradition could prevent the Zulu people from progressing technologically and economically. Socioeconomic data shows that the more a culture resists change the more risk there is in a value system falling apart. Though traditional beadwork still holds a serious place in Zulu culture, the decorative art form is often modified for tourists, with popular items such as the beaded fertility doll.
Matching
Questions 1-3
Match each definition in List A with the term it defines in List B.

Write the correct letter
A - E in boxes 1 - 3 on your answer sheet. There are more terms than definitions, so you will not use them all.
List A
Definitions
1
It means Place of Heaven.
2
It is the Portuguese name for southern Africa.
3
It means People of Heaven.

List B
Terms
A
Phoenician
B
Phoenician
C
AmaZulu
D
Explorer
E
KwaZulu



Short-Answer Questions
Questions 4-6
Answer the questions below.

Write
NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
Write your answers is boxes 4-6 on your answer sheet.
4 Which country does the Zulu clan reside in?

5 When did the Portuguese arrive in KwaZulu-Natal?

6 How many members of the Zulu Kingdom are there?
True-False-Not Given Questions
Questions 7-11
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the passage?

In boxes 7-11 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE            if the statement is true according to the passage
FALSE          if the statement contradicts the passage
NOT GIVEN    if there is no information about this in the passage
7 The British were the first people to sell glass beads in Africa.

8 Henry Frances Flynn made a lot of money selling glass beads to the Zulu people.

9 The Zulu people believed that glass beads were precious stones.

10 The Zulu people use glass beads in many aspects of their daily lives.

11 Zulu women believe that bead-covered gourds can help them have babies.

Answer Key
1. (E) Paragraph 1 states: "KwaZulu translates to mean "Place of Heaven."

2. (B) Paragraph 1 states: ""Natal' was the name the Portuguese explorers gave this region when they arrived in 1497"

3. (C) Paragraph 1 states: "By the late 1700s, the AmaZulu clan, meaning "People of Heaven,' constituted a significant nation."

4. South Africa. The first sentence of Paragraph 1 states that KwaZulu-Natal is a South African province.

5. 1497. Paragraph 1 states: "Portuguese explorers ..: arrived in 1497."

6. 11 million. Midway through paragraph 1 the passage states: "Today the Zulu clan represents the largest ethnic group in South Africa, with at least 11 million people in the kingdom."

7. False. Paragraph 2 talks about how the Egyptians were the first to bring beads to the area, though the British later facilitated the trade.

8. Not Given. Paragraph 2 states that Henry Frances Flynn brought glass beads to the region, but it doesn't state anywhere that he earned a lot of money doing this.

9. False. Paragraph 3 states: "The Zulu people were not fooled into believing that glass beads were precious stones but, rather, used the beads to establish certain codes and rituals in their society."

10. True. Paragraphs 3 discusses how beads are used for adornment, education, recreation, and communication.

11. True. Paragraph 3 discusses how bead-covered gourds are carried around by women who are having fertility problems. "Fertility problems" means difficulty becoming and staying pregnant.

IELTS Reading Passage 2

Read the passage and answer the questions. Use your predicting skills. Note the type of questions.
Choosing Headings
Questions 1-5
The following reading passage has five sections
A-E.

Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings on the next page.

Write the correct number i-viii in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet. There are more headings than sections, so you will not use them all.
1
Section A
2
Section B
3
Section C
4
Section D
5
Section E

i
Colorblindness' in different countries
ii
Diagnosing colorblindness
iii
What is colorblindness?
iv
Curing colorblindness
v
Unsolved myths
vi
Animals and colorblindness
vii
Developing the ability to see color
viii
Colorblindness and the sexes


Colorblindness
A Myths related to the causes and symptoms of "colorblindness" abound throughout the world. The term itself is misleading, since it is extremely rare for anyone to have a complete lack of color perception. By look ing into the myths related to color blindness, one can learn many facts about the structure and genetics o the human eye. It is a myth that colorblind people see the world as if it were a black and white movie. There are very few cases of complete colorblindness. Those who have a complete lack of color perception are referred to as monochromatics, and usually have a serious problem with their overall vision as well as an inability to see colors. The fact is that in most cases of colorblindness, there are only certain shades that a person cannot distinguish between. These people are said to be dichromatic. They may not be able to tell the difference between red and green, or orange and yellow. A person with normal color vision has what is called trichromatic vision. The difference between the three levels of color perception have to do with the cones in the human eye. A normal human eye has three cones located inside the retina: the red cone, the green cone, and the yellow cone. Each cone contains a specific pigment whose function is to absorb the light of these colors and the combinations of them. People with trichromatic vision have all three cones in working order. When one of the three cones does not function properly, dichromatic vision occurs.
B Some people believe that only men can be colorblind. This is also a myth, though it is not completely untrue. In an average population, 8% of males exhibit some form of colorblindness, while only 0.5% of women do. While there may be some truth to the idea that more men have trouble matching their clothing than women, the reason that color vision deficiency is predominant in males has nothing to do with fashion. The fact is that the gene for color blindness is located on the X chromosome, which men only have one of. Females have two X chromosomes, and if one carries the defective gene, the other one naturally compensates. Therefore, the only way for a female to inherit colorblindness is for both of her X chromosomes to carry the defective gene. This is why the incidence of color deficiency is sometimes more prevalent in extremely small societies that have a limited gene pool.
C It is true that all babies are born colorblind. A baby's cones do not begin to differentiate between many different colors until he is approximately four months old. This is why many of the modern toys for very young babies consist of black and white patterns or primary colors, rather than traditional soft pastels. However, some current research points to the importance of developing an infant's color visual system. In 2004, Japanese researcher Yoichi Sugita of the Neuroscience Research Institute performed an experiment that would suggest that color vision deficiency isn't entirely genetic. In his experiment, he subjected a group of baby monkeys to monochromatic lighting for one year. He later compared their vision to normal monkey who had experienced the colorful world outdoors. It was found that the test monkeys were unable to perform the color-matching tasks that the normal monkeys could. Nevertheless, most cases of colorblindness are attributed to genetic factors that are present at birth.
D Part of the reason there are so many inconsistencies related to colorblindness, or "color vision deficiency" as it is called in the medical world, is that it is difficult to know exactly which colors each human can see. Children are taught from a very young age that an apple is red. Naming colors allows children to associate a certain shade with a certain name, regardless of a color vision deficiency. Someone who never takes a color test can go through life thinking that what they see as red is called green. Children are generally tested for colorblindness at about four years of age. The Ishihara Test is the most common, though it is highly criticized' because it requires that children have the ability to recognize numerals. In the Ishihara Test, a number made up of colored dots is hidden inside a series of dots of a different shade. Those with normal vision can distinguish the number from the background, while those with color vision deficiency will only see the dots.
E While many of the myths related to colorblindness have been busted by modern science, there are still a few remaining beliefs that require more research in order to be labeled as folklore. For example, there is a long-standing belief that colorblindness can aid military soldiers because it gives them the ability to see through camouflage. Another belief is that everyone becomes colorblind in an emergency situation. The basis of this idea is that a catastrophic event can overwhelm the brain, causing it to utilize only those receptors needed to perform vital tasks. In general, identifying color is not considered an essential task in a life or death situation.
Multiple-Choice Questions
Questions 6-8
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C, or D. Write your answers in boxes 6-8 on your Answer Sheet.

6    People who see color normally are called
A monochromatic.

B dichromatic.

C tichromatic.

D colorblind.
7    Children usually begin to see a variety of colors by the age of
A one month.

B four months.

C one year.

D four years.
8    Children who take the Ishihara Test must be able to
A distinguish letters.

B write their names.

C read numbers.

D name colors.
Completing a Summery
Questions 9-12
Complete the summary using words from the box below.

Write your answers in boxes 9-12 on your Answer Sheet There are more answers than spaces, so you will not use them all.
It is a common 9 .................... that only men suffer
from colorblindness. On average
10 .................... 
than ten percent of men have this problem. Women
have two
11 ....................  For this reason it is 12 ....................  for a woman to suffer from  colorblindness.

myth
a little less
X chromosomes
defective genes
fact
slightly more
exactly
less likely
more probable


Answer Key
Note: Alternative spellings:. colour blindness, colour, colourful

1. iii. What is Colorblindness? Paragraph A discusses what people think color blindness is, and what it really is. In the middle of the paragraph it states, The fact is that in most cases of colorblindness, there are only certain shades that a person cannot distinguish between. These people are said to be dichromatic."

2. viii. Colorblindness and the Sexes. Paragraph B discusses the fact that men are more prone to colorblindness than women, and states the genetic reasons why this is the case.

3. vii. Developing the Ability to See Color. Paragraph C discusses the fact that babies are alt born colorblind and that they do not develop the ability to see colors until they are a few months old. This paragraph also discusses the possibility that infants may require a colorful environment in order to develop proper color vision.

4. ii. diagnosing Colorblindness. Paragraph R discusses the reasons why colorblindness is difficult to diagnose. It also discusses the Ishihara Test, which distinguishes those who are colorblind from those who have normal color vision.

5. v. Unsolved Myths. Paragraph E mentions two beliefs about colorblindness that haven't been proven as myths: that colorblindness can aid military soldiers and that everyone is colorblind in an emergency.

6. (C) The second to the last sentence of Paragraph A states that: "People with trichromatic vision have all three cones in working order."

7. (B) The second sentence in Paragraph C states that: "A baby's cones do not begin to differentiate between many different colors until he is approximately four months old."

8. (C) Paragraph R states the main downfall of the Ishihara Test: "The Ishihara Test is the most common, though it is highly criticized because it requires that children have the ability to recognize numerals."

9. myth. Paragraph B introduces the idea that although color vision deficiency is predominant in males, it is still possible for females to be colorblind.

10. a little less. Paragraph B states: "In an average population, 8% of males exhibit some form of colorblindness.

11. X chromosomes. Paragraph B states: "Females have two X chromosomes."

12. less likely. Paragraph B explains that it is less likely for women to be colorblind, because if one of their X chromosomes "carries the defective gene, the other one naturally compensates." "Compensate" means to make up for another's weakness.

IELTS Reading Passage 3

Read the passage and answer the questions. Use your predicting skills. Note the type of questions.
Antarctic Penguins
Though penguins are assumed to be native to the South Pole, only four of the seventeen species have evolved the survival adaptations necessary to live and breed in the Antarctic year round. The physical features of the Adelie, Chinstrap, Gentoo, and Emperor penguins equip them to withstand the harshest living conditions in the world. Besides these four species, there are a number of others, including the yellow feathered Macaroni penguin and the King penguin that visit the Antarctic regularly but migrate to warmer waters to breed. Penguins that live in Antarctica year round have a thermoregulation system and a survival sense that allows them to live comfortably both on the ice and in the water.
In the dark days of winter, when the Antarctic sees virtually no sunlight, the penguins that remain on the ice sheet sleep most of the day. To retain heat, penguins huddle in communities of up to 6,000 of their own species. When it's time to create a nest, most penguins build up a pile of rocks on top of the ice to place their eggs. The Emperor penguin, however, doesn't bother with a nest at all. The female Emperor lays just one egg and gives it to the male to protect while she goes off for weeks to feed. The male balances the egg on top of his feet, covering it with a small fold of skin called a brood patch. In the huddle, the male penguins rotate regularly so that none of the penguins have to stay on the outside of the circle exposed to the wind and cold for long periods of time. When it's time to take a turn on the outer edge of the pack, the penguins tuck their feathers in and shiver. The movement provides enough warmth until they can head back into the inner core and rest in the warmth. In order to reduce the cold of the ice, penguins often put their weight on their heels and tails. Antarctic penguins also have complex nasal passages that prevent 80 percent of their heat from leaving the body. When the sun is out, the black dorsal plumage attracts its rays and penguins can stay warm enough to waddle or slide about alone.
Antarctic penguins spend about 75 percent of their lives in the water. A number of survival adaptations allow them to swim through water as cold as -2 degrees Celsius. In order to stay warm in these temperatures, penguins have to keep moving. Though penguins don't fly in the air, they are often said to fly through water. Instead of stopping each time they come up for air, they use a technique called "porpoising," in which they leap up for a quick breath while swiftly moving forward: Unlike most birds that have hollow bones for flight, penguins have evolved hard solid bones that keep them low in the water. Antarctic penguins also have unique feathers that work similarly to a waterproof diving suit. Tufts of down trap a layer of air within the feathers, preventing the water from penetrating the penguin's skin. The pres¬sure of a deep dive releases this air, and a penguin has to rearrange the feathers through a process called "preening." Penguins also have an amazing circulatory system, which in extremely cold waters diverts blood from the flippers and legs to the heart.
While the harsh climate of the Antarctic doesn't threaten the survival of Antarctic penguins, overheating can be a concern, and therefore, global warming is a threat to them. Temperate species have certain physical features such as fewer feathers and less blubber to keep them cool on a hot day. African penguins have bald patches on their legs and face where excess heat can be released. The blood vessels in the penguin's skin dilate when the body begins to overheat, and the heat rises to the surface of the body. Penguins who are built for cold winters of the Antarctic have other survival techniques for a warm day, such as moving to shaded areas, or holding their fins out away from their bodies.
Classifying Information
Questions 1-5
Classify the following facts as applying to
A Antarctic penguins

B Temperature-area penguins
Write the appropriate letter, A or B, in boxes i-5 on your answer sheet.
1 stand in large groups to keep warm

2 spend about three quarters of its time in the water

3 have feathers that keep cold water away from its skin

4 have areas of skin without feathers

5 have less blubber.
Completing Sentences
Questions 6-9

Complete each of the following sentences with information from the reading passage. Write your answers in boxes 6-9 on your Answer Sheet. Write No MORE THAN THREE words for each answer.
6 Most penguins use .......................... to build their nests.

7 While the male emperor penguin takes care of the egg, the female goes away to .......................... .

8 A ..........................  is a piece of skin that the male emperor penguin uses to protect the egg.

9 Penguins protect their feet from the cold of the ice by standing on their ..........................
Choosing Answers from a List
Questions 10-13
The article mentions many facts about penguins.

Which four of the following features are things that enable them to survive in very cold water?

Write the appropriate letters
A-H in boxes 10-13 on your Answer Sheet.
A They move through the water very quickly.

B They hold their flippers away from their bodies. C They choose shady areas.

C When necessary, their blood moves away from the flippers and toward the heart.

D They breathe while still moving.

E The blood vessels in their skin dilate.

F They waddle and slide.

G Their feathers hold in a layer of air near the skin.
Answer Key
1. (A) Paragraph 2 discusses how Antarctic penguins "huddle in communities" to keep warm.

2. (A) The first sentence of Paragraph 3 states: "Antarctic penguins spend about 75 percent of their lives in the water."

3. (B) Paragraph 3 discusses the unique feathers of Antarctic penguins that that work similarly to a waterproof diving suit: "Tufts of down trap a layer of air within the feathers, preventing the water from penetrating the penguin's skin."

4. (A) Paragraph 4 states: "Temperate species have certain physical features such as fewer feathers and less blubber to keep them cool on a hot day."

5. (B) Paragraph 4 discusses the bald patches of a temperate species called African penguins.

6. rocks. Paragraph 2 states: "When it's time to create a nest, most penguins build up a pile of rocks on top of the ice to place their eggs."

7. feed/eat. Paragraph 2 discusses the Emperor penguin's gender roles: "The female Emperor lays just one egg and gives it to the male to protect while she goes off for weeks to feed."

8. brood patch. Paragraph-2 explains how the male Emperor penguin takes care of the egg: "The male balances the egg on top of his feet, covering it with a small fold of skin called a brood patch."

9. heels and tails. Toward the end of paragraph 2 the text states: "In order to reduce the cold of the ice, penguins often put their weight on their heels and tails."

10. (A) Paragraph 3 states that penguins have to keep moving to stay warm. Their swimming is compared to flight.

11. (R)The last sentence in Paragraph 3 describes the penguin's circulatory system: "Penguins also have an amazing circulatory system, which in extremely cold waters diverts blood from the flippers and legs to the heart."

12. (E) Paragraph 3 describes "porpoising" which penguins do in order to be able to breathe without having to stop swimming.

13. (H) Paragraph 3 describes how feathers keep Antarctic penguins dry: "Tufts of down trap a layer of air within the feathers, preventing the water from penetrating the penguin's skin." Choice (B), (C), and (F) are incorrect because these are all of examples of how penguins stay cool.

IELTS Academic Reading #1

Light pollution


Light Pollution is a threat to Wildlife, Safety and the Starry Sky
A
After hours of driving south in the pitch-black darkness of the Nevada desert, a dome of hazy gold suddenly appears on the horizon. Soon, a road sign confirms the obvious: Las Vegas 30 miles. Looking skyward, you notice that the Big Dipper is harder to find than it was an hour ago.
B
Light pollution—the artificial light that illuminates more than its intended target area—has become a problem of increasing concern across the country over the past 15 years. In the suburbs, where over-lit shopping mall parking lots are the norm, only 200 of the Milky Way’s 2,500 stars are visible on a clear night. Even fewer can be seen from large cities. In almost every town, big and small, street lights beam just as much light up and out as they do down, illuminating much more than just the street. Almost 50 percent of the light emanating from street lamps misses its intended target, and billboards, shopping centers, private homes and skyscrapers are similarly over-illuminated.
C
America has become so bright that in a satellite image of the United States at night, the outline of the country is visible from its lights alone. The major cities are all there, in bright clusters: New York, Boston, Miami, Houston, Los Angeles, Seattle, Chicago—and, of course, Las Vegas. Mark Adams, superintendent of the McDonald Observatory in west Texas, says that the very fact that city lights are visible from on high is proof of their wastefulness. “When you’re up in an airplane, all that light you see on the ground from the city is wasted. It’s going up into the night sky. That’s why you can see it.”
D
But don’t we need all those lights to ensure our safety? The answer from light engineers, light pollution control advocates and astronomers is an emphatic “no.” Elizabeth Alvarez of the International Dark Sky Association (IDA), a nonprofit organization in Tucson, Arizona, says that overly bright security lights can actually force neighbors to close the shutters, which means that if any criminal activity does occur on the street, no one will see it. And the old assumption that bright lights deter crime appears to have been a false one: A new Department of Justice report concludes that there is no documented correlation between the level of lighting and the level of crime in an area. And contrary to popular belief, more crimes occur in broad daylight than at night.
E
For drivers, light can actually create a safety hazard. Glaring lights can temporarily blind drivers, increasing the likelihood of an accident. To help prevent such accidents, some cities and states prohibit the use of lights that impair nighttime vision. For instance, New Hampshire law forbids the use of “any light along a highway so positioned as to blind or dazzle the vision of travelers on the adjacent highway.”
F
Badly designed lighting can pose a threat to wildlife as well as people. Newly hatched turtles in Florida move toward beach lights instead of the more muted silver shimmer of the ocean. Migrating birds, confused by lights on skyscrapers, broadcast towers and lighthouses, are injured, sometimes fatally, after colliding with high, lighted structures. And light pollution harms air quality as well: Because most of the country’s power plants are still powered by fossil fuels, more light means more air pollution.
G
So what can be done? Tucson, Arizona is taking back the night. The city has one of the best lighting ordinances in the country, and, not coincidentally, the highest concentration of observatories in the world. Kitt Peak National Optical Astronomy Observatory has 24 telescopes aimed skyward around the city’s perimeter, and its cadre of astronomers needs a dark sky to work with.
H
For a while, that darkness was threatened. “We were totally losing the night sky,” Jim Singleton of Tucson’s Lighting Committee told Tulsa, Oklahoma’s KOTV last March. Now, after retrofitting inefficient mercury lighting with low-sodium lights that block light from “trespassing” into unwanted areas like bedroom windows, and by doing away with some unnecessary lights altogether, the city is softly glowing rather than brightly beaming. The same thing is happening in a handful of other states, including Texas, which just passed a light pollution bill last summer. “Astronomers can get what they need at the same time that citizens get what they need: safety, security and good visibility at night,” says McDonald Observatory’s Mark Adams, who provided testimony at the hearings for the bill.
I
And in the long run, everyone benefits from reduced energy costs. Wasted energy from inefficient lighting costs us between $1 and $2 billion a year, according to IDA. The city of San Diego, which installed new, high-efficiency street lights after passing a light pollution law in 1985, now saves about $3 million a year in energy costs.
J
Legislation isn’t the only answer to light pollution problems. Brian Greer, Central Ohio representative for the Ohio Light Pollution Advisory Council, says that education is just as important, if not more so. “There are some special situations where regulation is the only fix,” he says. “But the vast majority of bad lighting is simply the result of not knowing any better.” Simple actions like replacing old bulbs and fixtures with more efficient and better-designed ones can make a big difference in preserving the night sky.

*The Big Dipper: a group of seven bright stars visible in the Northern Hemisphere.


Question 1-5
The first six paragraphs of Reading Passage 1 are lettered A-F.
Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs A-F from the list of headings below.
NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.
List of Headings
i Why lights are needed
vii Seen from above
ii Lighting discourages law breakers
viii More light than is necessary
iii The environmental dangers
ix Approaching the city
iv People at risk from bright lights

v Illuminating space

vi A problem lights do not solve


Example
Answer
Paragraph A
ix (Approaching the city)

1 Paragraph B
.................... 
2 Paragraph C
.................... 
3 Paragraph D
....................
4 Paragraph E
.................... 
5 Paragraph F
.................... 
Question 6-9
Complete each of the following statements with words taken from the passage.
Write ONE or TWO WORDS for each answer.
 6 According to a recent study, well-lit streets do not .................... or make neighbourhoods safer to live in.
 7 Inefficient lighting increases .................... because most electricity is produced from coal, gas or oil.
 8 Efficient lights .................... from going into areas where it is not needed.
 9 In dealing with light pollution .................... is at least as important as passing new laws.

Questions 10-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE
if the statement agrees with the information.

FALSE
if the statement contradicts the information.

NOT GIVEN
if there is no information on this
 10 One group of scientists find their observations are made more difficult by bright lights.  
 11 It is expensive to reduce light pollution.  
 12 Many countries are now making light pollution illegal.  
 13 Old types of light often cause more pollution than more modern ones.  

Answers:



Example
Answer
Paragraph A
ix (Approaching the city)

1 Paragraph B
viii 
2 Paragraph C
vii 
3 Paragraph D
vi
4 Paragraph E
iv 
5 Paragraph F
iii 
Question 6-9
Complete each of the following statements with words taken from the passage.
Write ONE or TWO WORDS for each answer.
 6 According to a recent study, well-lit streets do not deter crime or make neighbourhoods safer to live in.
 7 Inefficient lighting increases (air) pollution because most electricity is produced from coal, gas or oil.
 8 Efficient lights block light from going into areas where it is not needed.
 9 In dealing with light pollution education is at least as important as passing new laws.

Questions 10-13

 10
One group of scientists find their observations are made more difficult by bright lights.  YES
 11 It is expensive to reduce light pollution.  NO
 12 Many countries are now making light pollution illegal.  NOT GIVEN
 13 Old types of light often cause more pollution than more modern ones.  YES
IELTS Academic Reading #2
Television Addiction


Television addiction is no mere metaphor
A
The term "TV addiction" is imprecise, but it captures the essence of a very real phenomenon. Psychologists formally define addiction as a disorder characterized by criteria that include spending a great deal of time using the thing; using it more often than one intends; thinking about reducing use or making repeated unsuccessful efforts to reduce use; giving up important activities to use it; and reporting withdrawal symptoms when one stops using it.
B
All these criteria can apply to people who watch a lot of television. That does not mean that watching television, in itself, is problematic. Television can teach and amuse; it can be highly artistic; it can provide much needed distraction and escape. The difficulty arises when people strongly sense that they ought not to watch as much as they do and yet find they are unable to reduce their viewing. Some knowledge of how television becomes so addictive may help heavy viewers gain better control over their lives.
C
The amount of time people spend watching television is astonishing. On average, individuals in the industrialized world devote three hours a day to the activity – fully half of their leisure time, and more than on any single activity except work and sleep. At this rate, someone who lives to 75 would spend nine years in front of the television. Possibly, this devotion means simply that people enjoy TV and make a conscious decision to watch it. But if that is the whole story, why do so many people worry about how much they view? In surveys in 1992 and 1999, two out of five adults and seven out of ten teenagers said they spent too much time watching TV. Other surveys have consistently shown that roughly ten per cent of adults call themselves TV addicts.
D
To study people’s reactions to TV, researchers have undertaken laboratory experiments in which they have monitored the brain waves, skin resistance or heart rate of people watching television. To study behavior and emotion in the normal course of life, as opposed to the artificial conditions of the laboratory, we have used the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). Participants carried a beeper*, and we signaled them six to eight times a day, at random, over the period of a week; whenever they heard the beep, they wrote down what they were doing and how they were feeling.
E
As one might expect, people who were watching TV when we beeped them reported feeling relaxed and passive. The EEG studies similarly show less mental stimulation, as measured by alpha brain-wave production, during viewing than during reading.
F
What is more surprising is that the sense of relaxation ends when the set is turned off, but the feelings of passivity and lowered alertness continue. Survey participants commonly reflect that television has somehow absorbed or sucked out their energy, leaving them depleted. They say they have more difficulty concentrating after viewing than before. In contrast, they rarely indicate such difficulty after reading. After playing sports or engaging in hobbies, people report improvements in mood. After watching TV, people's moods are about the same or worse than before.
G
Within moments of sitting or lying down and pushing the "power" button, viewers report feeling more relaxed. Because the relaxation occurs quickly, people are conditioned to associate viewing with rest and lack of tension. The association is positively reinforced because viewers remain relaxed throughout viewing.
H
Thus, the irony of TV: people watch a great deal longer than they plan to, even though prolonged viewing is less rewarding. In our ESM studies the longer people sat in front of the set, the less satisfaction they said they derived from it. When signaled, heavy viewers (those who consistently watch more than four hours a day) tended to report on their ESM sheets that they enjoy TV less than light viewers did (less than two hours a day). For some, a twinge of unease or guilt that they aren't doing something more productive may also accompany and depreciate the enjoyment of prolonged viewing. Researchers in Japan, the U.K. and the U.S. have found that this guilt occurs much more among middle-class viewers than among less affluent ones.
I
the orienting response is an instinctive reaction to any sudden or new, such as movement or possible attack by a predator. Typical orienting reactions include the following the arteries to the brain grow wider allowing more blood to reach it, the heart slows down and arteries to the large muscles become narrower so as to reduce blood supply to them. Brain waves are also interrupted for a few seconds. These changes allow the brain to focus its attention on gathering more information and becoming more alert while the rest of the body becomes quieter.





Questions 1-3

The list below gives some characteristics of addiction.
Which THREE of the following are mentioned as characteristics of addiction to television?

A harmful physical effects

B loss of control over time

C destruction of relationships

D reduced intellectual performance

E discomfort when attempting to give up

F dishonesty about the extent of the addiction
Questions 4-8

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?

In boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet, write

YES
if the statement agrees with the information.

NO
if the statement contradicts the information.

NOT GIVEN
if there is no information on this
4 One purpose of the research is to help people to manage their lives better.  
5 Watching television has reduced the amount of time people spend sleeping.  
6 People's brains show less activity while watching television than when reading.  
7 There is a relationship between the length of time spent watching TV and economic status.  
8 Pleasure increases in proportion to the length of time spent watching TV.  
Questions 9-13

Classify the following feelings or mental states as generally occurring:
A before watching television.
B while watching television.
C after watching television.
D both while and after watching television.

9 reduced anxiety and stress.  
10 increased fatigue.  
11 higher levels of concentration.  
12 less mental activity.  
13 worry about time wasted.  


Answers:
Questions 1-3

The list below gives some characteristics of addiction.
Which THREE of the following are mentioned as characteristics of addiction to television?

A harmful physical effects
x
B loss of control over time

C destruction of relationships
x
D reduced intellectual performance
x
E discomfort when attempting to give up

F dishonesty about the extent of the addiction
Questions 4-8

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?

In boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet, write

YES
if the statement agrees with the information.

NO
if the statement contradicts the information.

NOT GIVEN
if there is no information on this
4 One purpose of the research is to help people to manage their lives better.  YES
5 Watching television has reduced the amount of time people spend sleeping.  NOT GIVEN
6 People's brains show less activity while watching television than when reading.  YES
7 There is a relationship between the length of time spent watching TV and economic status.  NOT GIVEN
8 Pleasure increases in proportion to the length of time spent watching TV.  NO
Questions 9-13

Classify the following feelings or mental states as generally occurring:
A before watching television.
B while watching television.
C after watching television.
D both while and after watching television.

9 reduced anxiety and stress.  B
10 increased fatigue.  C
11 higher levels of concentration.  A
12 less mental activity.  D
13 worry about time wasted.  D




IELTS Academic Reading #3
The US City and the Natural Environment
A
While cities and their metropolitan areas have always interacted with and shaped the natural environment, it is only recently that historians have begun to consider this relationship. During our own time, the tension between natural and urbanized areas has increased, as the spread of metropolitan populations and urban land uses has reshaped and destroyed natural landscapes and environments.
B
The relationship between the city and the natural environment has actually been circular, with cities having massive effects on the natural environment, while the natural environment, in turn, has profoundly shaped urban configurations. Urban history is filled with stories about how city dwellers contended with the forces of nature that threatened their lives. Nature not only caused many of the annoyances of daily urban life, such as bad weather and pests, but it also gave rise to natural disasters and catastrophes such as floods, fires, and earthquakes. In order to protect themselves and their settlements against the forces of nature, cities built many defences including flood walls and dams, earthquake-resistant buildings, and storage places for food and water. At times, such protective steps sheltered urbanites against the worst natural furies, but often their own actions – such as building under the shadow of volcanoes, or in earthquake-prone zones – exposed them to danger from natural hazards.
C
City populations require food, water, fuel, and construction materials, while urban industries need natural materials for production purposes. In order to fulfill these needs, urbanites increasingly had to reach far beyond their boundaries. In the nineteenth century, for instance, the demands of city dwellers for food produced rings of garden farms around cities. In the twentieth century, as urban populations increased, the demand for food drove the rise of large factory farms. Cities also require fresh water supplies in order to exist – engineers built waterworks, dug wells deeper and deeper into the earth looking for groundwater, and dammed and diverted rivers to obtain water supplies for domestic and industrial uses. In the process of obtaining water from distant locales, cities often transformed them, making deserts where there had been fertile agricultural areas.
D
Urbanites had to seek locations to dispose of the wastes they produced. Initially, they placed wastes on sites within the city, polluting the air, land, and water with industrial and domestic effluents. As cities grew larger, they disposed of their wastes by transporting them to more distant locations. Thus, cities constructed sewerage systems for domestic wastes. They usually discharged the sewage into neighbouring waterways, often polluting the water supply of downstream cities.

The air and the land also became dumps for waste disposal. In the late nineteenth century, coal became the preferred fuel for industrial, transportation, and domestic use. But while providing an inexpensive and plentiful energy supply, coal was also very dirty. The cities that used it suffered from air contamination and reduced sunlight, while the cleaning tasks of householders were greatly increased.
E
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, reformers began demanding urban environmental cleanups and public health improvements. Women's groups often took the lead in agitating for clean air and clean water, showing a greater concern than men in regard to quality of life and health-related issues. The replacement of the horse, first by electric trolleys and then by the car, brought about substantial improvements in street and air sanitation. The movements demanding clean air, however, and reduction of waterway pollution were largely unsuccessful. On balance, urban sanitary conditions were probably somewhat better in the 1920s than in the late nineteenth century, but the cost of improvement often was the exploitation of urban hinterlands for water supplies, increased downstream water pollution, and growing automobile congestion and pollution.
F
In the decades after the 1940s, city environments suffered from heavy pollution as they sought to cope with increased automobile usage, pollution from industrial production, new varieties of chemical pesticides and the wastes of an increasingly consumer-oriented economy. Cleaner fuels and smoke control laws largely freed cities during the 1940s and 1950s of the dense smoke that they had previously suffered from. Improved urban air quality resulted largely from the substitution of natural gas and oil for coal and the replacement of the steam locomotive by the diesel-electric. However, great increases in automobile usage in some larger cities produced the new phenomenon of smog, and air pollution replaced smoke as a major concern.
G
During these decades, the suburban out-migration, which had begun in the nineteenth century with commuter trains and streetcars and accelerated because of the availability and convenience of the automobile, now increased to a torrent, putting major strains on the formerly rural and undeveloped metropolitan fringes. To a great extent, suburban layouts ignored environmental considerations, making little provision for open space, producing endless rows of resource-consuming and fertilizer-dependent lawns, contaminating groundwater through leaking septic tanks, and absorbing excessive amounts of fresh water and energy. The growth of the outer city since the 1970s reflected a continued preference on the part of many people in the western world for space-intensive single-family houses surrounded by lawns, for private automobiles over public transit, and for the development of previously untouched areas. Without better planning for land use and environmental protection, urban life will, as it has in the past, continue to damage and stress the natural environment.
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on IELTS Reading Passage 1.

Questions 1-7

Reading Passage 1 has seven sections, A-G.

Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i
Legislation brings temporary improvements
ii
The increasing speed of suburban development
iii
A new area of academic interest
iv
The impact of environmental extremes on city planning
v
The first campaigns for environmental change
vi
Building cities in earthquake zones
vii
The effect of global warming on cities
viii
Adapting areas surrounding cities to provide resources
ix
Removing the unwanted by-products of city life
x
Providing health information for city dwellers

1
Section A


2
Section B


3
Section C


4
Section D


5
Section E


6
Section F


7
Section G


Questions 8-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE
if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE
if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN
if there is no information on this
8 In the nineteenth century, water was brought into the desert to create productive farming land.  
9 Women were often the strongest campaigners for environmental reform.  
10 Reducing urban air and water pollution in the early twentieth century was extremely expensive.  
11 The introduction of the car led to increased suburban development.  
12 Suburban lifestyles in many western nations fail to take account of environmental protection.  
13 Many governments in the developed world are trying to halt the spread of the suburbs.  
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on IELTS Reading Passage 1.


Questions 1-7

Reading Passage 1 has seven sections, A-G.

Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i
Legislation brings temporary improvements
ii
The increasing speed of suburban development
iii
A new area of academic interest
iv
The impact of environmental extremes on city planning
v
The first campaigns for environmental change
vi
Building cities in earthquake zones
vii
The effect of global warming on cities
viii
Adapting areas surrounding cities to provide resources
ix
Removing the unwanted by-products of city life
x
Providing health information for city dwellers

1
Section A

iii
2
Section B

iv
3
Section C

viii
4
Section D

ix
5
Section E

v
6
Section F

i
7
Section G

ii


Questions 8-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE
if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE
if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN
if there is no information on this
8 In the nineteenth century, water was brought into the desert to create productive farming land.  FALSE
9 Women were often the strongest campaigners for environmental reform.  TRUE
10 Reducing urban air and water pollution in the early twentieth century was extremely expensive.  NOT GIVEN
11 The introduction of the car led to increased suburban development.  TRUE
12 Suburban lifestyles in many western nations fail to take account of environmental protection.  TRUE
13 Many governments in the developed world are trying to halt the spread of the suburbs.  NOT GIVEN
IELTS Academic Reading #4
Investigating Children’s Language

A
For over 200 years, there has been an interest in the way children learn to speak and understand their first language. Scholars carried out several small-scale studies, especially towards the end of the 19th century, using data they recorded in parental diaries. But detailed, systematic investigation did not begin until the middle decades of the 20th century, when the tape recorder came into routine use. This made it possible to keep a permanent record of samples of child speech, so that analysts could listen repeatedly to obscure extracts, and thus produce a detailed and accurate description. Since then, the subject has attracted enormous multi-disciplinary interest, notably from linguists and psychologists, who have used a variety of observational and experimental techniques to study the process of language acquisition in depth.
B
Central to the success of this rapidly emerging field lies the ability of researchers to devise satisfactory methods for eliciting linguistic data from children. The problems that have to be faced are quite different from those encountered when working with adults. Many of the linguist’s routine techniques of enquiry cannot be used with children. It is not possible to carry out certain kinds of experiments, because aspects of children’s cognitive development – such as their ability to pay attention, or to remember instructions – may not be sufficiently advanced. Nor is it easy to get children to make systematic judgments about language, a task that is virtually impossible below the age of three. And anyone who has tried to obtain even the most basic kind of data – a tape recording of a representative sample of a child’s speech – knows how frustrating this can be. Some children, it seems, are innately programmed to switch off as soon as they notice a tape recorder being switched on.
C
Since the 1960s, however, several sophisticated recording techniques and experimental designs have been devised. Children can be observed and recorded through one-way-vision windows or using radio microphones, so that the effects of having an investigator in the same room as the child can be eliminated. Large-scale sampling programmes have been carried out, with children sometimes being recorded for several years. Particular attention has been paid to devising experimental techniques that fall well within a child’s intellectual level and social experience. Even pre-linguistic infants have been brought into the research: acoustic techniques are used to analyse their vocalisations, and their ability to perceive the world around them is monitored using special recording equipment. The result has been a growing body of reliable data on the stages of language acquisition from birth until puberty.
D
There is no single way of studying children’s language. Linguistics and psychology have each brought their own approach to the subject, and many variations have been introduced to cope with the variety of activities in which children engage, and the great age range that they present. Two main research paradigms are found.
E
One of these is known as ‘naturalistic sampling’. A sample of a child’s spontaneous use of language is recorded in familiar and comfortable surroundings. One of the best places to make the recording is in the child’s own home, but it is not always easy to maintain good acoustic quality, and the presence of the researcher or the recording equipment can be a distraction (especially if the proceedings are being filmed). Alternatively, the recording can be made in a research centre, where the child is allowed to play freely with toys while talking to parents or other children, and the observers and their equipment are unobtrusive.
F
A good quality, representative, naturalistic sample is generally considered an ideal datum for child language study. However, the method has several limitations. These samples are informative about speech production, but they give little guidance about children’s comprehension of what they hear around them. Moreover, samples cannot contain everything, and they can easily miss some important features of a child’s linguistic ability. They may also not provide enough instances of a developing feature to enable the analyst to make a decision about the way the child is learning. For such reasons, the description of samples of child speech has to be supplemented by other methods.
G
The other main approach is through experimentation, and the methods of experimental psychology have been widely applied to child language research. The investigator formulates a specific hypothesis about children’s ability to use or understand an aspect of language, and devises a relevant task for a group of subjects to undertake. A statistical analysis is made of the subjects’ behaviour, and the results provide evidence that supports or falsifies the original hypothesis.
H
Using this approach, as well as other methods of controlled observation, researchers have come up with many detailed findings about the production and comprehension of groups of children. However, it is not easy to generalise the findings of these studies. What may obtain in a carefully controlled setting may not apply in the rush of daily interaction. Different kinds of subjects, experimental situations, and statistical procedures may produce different results or interpretations. Experimental research is therefore a slow, painstaking business; it may take years before researchers are convinced that all variables have been considered and a finding is genuine.
Questions 1-5

Reading Passage 1 has eight paragraphs, A-H.

Which paragraphs contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A-H in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

1 the possibility of carrying out research on children before they start talking 
2 the difficulties in deducing theories from systematic experiments 
3 the differences between analysing children’s and adults’ language 
4 the ability to record children without them seeing the researcher 
5 the drawbacks of recording children in an environment they know 

Questions 6-9

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 6-9 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE
if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE
if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN
if there is no information on this
6 In the 19th century, researchers studied their own children’s language.  
7 Attempts to elicit very young children’s opinions about language are likely to fail.  
8 Radio microphones are used because they enable researchers to communicate with a number of children in different rooms.  
9 Many children enjoy the interaction with the researcher.  

Question 10-14

Complete the summary below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 10-14 on your answer sheet.


Ways of investigating children’s language

One method of carrying out research is to record children’s spontaneous language use. This can be done in their homes, where, however, it may be difficult to ensure that the recording is of acceptable 10
..................... Another venue which is often used is a 11 ...................., where the researcher can avoid distracting the child. A drawback of this method is that it does not allow children to demonstrate their comprehension.
An alternative approach is to use methodology from the field of 12
..................... In this case, a number of children are asked to carry out a 13 ...................., and the results are subjected to a 14 .....................
Answers:
Questions 1-5

Reading Passage 1 has eight paragraphs, A-H.

Which paragraphs contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A-H in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

1 the possibility of carrying out research on children before they start talking C
2 the difficulties in deducing theories from systematic experiments H
3 the differences between analysing children’s and adults’ language B
4 the ability to record children without them seeing the researcher C
5 the drawbacks of recording children in an environment they know E
Questions 6-9

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 6-9 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE
if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE
if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN
if there is no information on this
6 In the 19th century, researchers studied their own children’s language.  TRUE
7 Attempts to elicit very young children’s opinions about language are likely to fail.  TRUE
8 Radio microphones are used because they enable researchers to communicate with a number of children in different rooms.  FALSE
9 Many children enjoy the interaction with the researcher.  NOT GIVEN
Question 10-14

Complete the summary below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 10-14 on your answer sheet.


Ways of investigating children’s language

One method of carrying out research is to record children’s spontaneous language use. This can be done in their homes, where, however, it may be difficult to ensure that the recording is of acceptable 10
acoustic quality. Another venue which is often used is a 11 research centre/center, where the researcher can avoid distracting the child. A drawback of this method is that it does not allow children to demonstrate their comprehension.
An alternative approach is to use methodology from the field of 12
experimental psychology. In this case, a number of children are asked to carry out a 13 (relevant) task, and the results are subjected to a 14 statistical analysis.

3 comments:

  1. Good information about IELTS it is very useful for students

    IELTS letter

    ReplyDelete
  2. Thanks for sharing this nice post. IELTS reading section includes passages taken from different magazines, books,newspapers and journals.so follow the IELTS reading success tips and get higher bands in IELTS reading section.

    IELTS reading test tips

    ReplyDelete
  3. Thanks for sharing information it is very useful for study

    A simple IELTS revision

    ReplyDelete

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