Saturday, 25 May 2013


from preposition PLACE
1. used to show the place where someone or something starts
What time does the flight from Amsterdam arrive?
The wind is coming from the north.
She sent me a postcard from Majorca.
He took a handkerchief from his pocket.
She took her hairbrush from her handbag and began to brush her hair.
So did you really walk all the way from Bond Street?
from preposition TIME
2. used to show the time when something starts or the time when it was made or first existed
Drinks will be served from seven o'clock.
The price of petrol will rise by 5p a gallon from tomorrow.
Most of the tapestries in this room date from the seventeenth century.
The museum is open from 9.30 to 6.00 Tuesday to Sunday.
from preposition DISTANCE
4. used to show the distance between two places
It's about two kilometres from the airport to your hotel.
We're about a mile from home.
from preposition ORIGIN
5. used to show the origin of something or someone
"Where are you from?" "I'm from Italy."
I wonder who this card is from.
Could I speak to someone from the sales department?
The sales executive from Unilever is here to see you.
What sort of reaction did you get from him?
from preposition MATERIAL
6. used to show the material of which something is made
The desk is made from pine.
Meringues are made from sugar and egg whites.
from preposition LEVEL
7. used to show the level at which a range of things begins, such as numbers or prices
Prices start from £2.99.
Tickets will cost from $10 to $45.
The number of people employed by the company has risen from 25 to 200 in three years.
from preposition CHANGE
8. used to show a change in the state of someone or something
Things went from bad to worse.
She has been promoted from deputy manager to senior manager.
Since the success of her first play, she has gone from strength to strength (= her success has continued to increase) .
from preposition CAUSE
9. used to show the cause of something or the reason why something happens
He was rushed to hospital but died from his injuries.
She made her money from investing in property.
You could tell she wasn't lying from the fear in her voice.
Wearing the correct type of clothing will reduce the risk from radiation.
from preposition CONSIDERING
10. used to show the facts or opinions you consider before making a judgment or decision
Just from looking at the clouds, I would say it's going to rain.
It's difficult to guess what they will conclude from the evidence.
from preposition REMOVE
11. used to show that someone has left a place, or that something has been removed or taken away
They were exiled from their homes during the war.
Her handbag was snatched from her in the street.
A refining process is used to extract usable fuel from crude oil.
from preposition REMOVE
12. If you take a smaller amount from a larger amount, you reduce the larger amount by the smaller one
Three from sixteen is thirteen.
from preposition DIFFERENCE
13. used to show a difference between two people or things
His opinion could hardly be more different from mine.
The two sisters are so similar that it's almost impossible to tell one from the other.
from preposition POSITION
14. used to show the position of something in comparison with other things, or the point of view of someone when considering a matter or problem
From the restaurant there is a beautiful view of Siena.
She was talking from her own experience of the problem.
From our point of view, we do not see how these changes will be beneficial to the company.
from preposition PROTECTION
15. used to show what someone is being protected against
They found shelter from the storm under a large oak tree.
from preposition PREVENTING
16. used to show what someone is not allowed to do or know, or what has been stopped happening
He's been banned from driving for six months.
For many years, the truth was kept from the public.
The bank loan saved her company from bankruptcy.
given preposition
knowing about or considering a particular thing
Given his age, he's a remarkably fast runner.
Given (the fact) that he's had six months to do this, he hasn't made much progress.
gone preposition UK
later or older than
I said I'd be home by six and it's already gone seven.
in preposition INSIDE
1. inside or towards the inside of a container, place or area, or surrounded or closed off by something
Put the milk back in the fridge when you've finished with it.
Is Mark still in bed?
I got stuck in a traffic jam for half an hour.
They live in a charming old cottage.
How much is that coat on display in the window (= in the space behind the window of the shop) ?
I've got a pain in my back.
What's that in your hand?
I've got something in (= on the surface of) my eye.
They used to live in Paris, but now they're somewhere in Austria.
He's always looking at himself in the mirror (= at the image of his face produced by the mirror) .
I never know what's going on in her head (= what she's thinking about) .
My daughter's UK in hospital/ US in the hospital having her tonsils out.
US Is Erika still in school (= does she still go to school) ?
in preposition INTO
2. into something
Come on, we're late - get in the car.
Put it in the cupboard.
They threw him in the swimming pool.
in preposition PART
3. forming a part of something
He used to be the lead singer in a rock 'n' roll band.
There are too many spelling mistakes in this essay.
I've been waiting in this queue for ages.
What do you look for in a relationship?
I can see a future champion in Joely (= I think that Joely might become a champion) .
Talent like hers is rare in someone so young.
in preposition DURING
4. during part or all of a period of time
We're going to Italy in April.
Some trees lose their leaves in (the) autumn.
I started working here in 1991.
Life in the 19th century was very different from what it is now.
Bye, see you in the morning (= tomorrow morning) .
She was a brilliant gymnast in her youth (= when she was young) .
How many civilians died in the Vietnam War?
This is the first cigarette I've had in three years.
I haven't had a decent night's sleep in years/ages (= for a long time) .
in preposition NO MORE THAN
6. needing or using no more time than a particular amount of time
Can you finish the job in two weeks?
She could get that essay done in a couple of hours if she really tried.
They completed the journey in record time (= faster than ever done before) .
in preposition BEFORE THE END
7. before or at the end of a particular period
Dinner will be ready in ten minutes.
We'll all be dead in a hundred years so there's no point worrying about it.
I'm just setting off, so I should be with you in half an hour.
in preposition EXPERIENCING
8. experiencing a situation or condition, or feeling an emotion
We watched in horror as they pulled the bodies from the wreckage.
He's living in luxury in the south of France.
She left in a bit of a hurry.
You're in great danger.
Could I have a word with you in private?
Have you ever been in love?
Your car's in very good condition, considering how old it is.
in preposition EXPRESSED
9. expressed or written in a particular way
Cheques should be written in ink.
She usually paints in watercolour.
They spoke in Russian the whole time.
He always talks in a whisper.
in preposition RESULT
10. used when referring to something that is done as a result of something else
I'd like to do something for you in return / exchange for everything you've done for me.
The changes are in response to demand from our customers.
He refused to say anything in reply to the journalists' questions.
in preposition ARRANGEMENT
11. used to show how things or people are arranged or divided
We all sat down in a circle.
The desks were arranged in rows of ten.
Discounts are available to people travelling in large groups.
Sometimes customers buy books in twos and threes, but rarely in larger quantities than that.
Cut the potatoes in two.
People are dying in their thousands from typhoid, cold and starvation.
in preposition AGE/TEMPERATURE
12. used when referring approximately to someone's age or the weather temperature
Nowadays many women are in their late thirties when they have their first child.
Temperatures will be in the mid-twenties (= about 25 degrees) .
in preposition INVOLVED
13. involved or connected with a particular subject or activity
I never knew you were in publishing.
a degree in philosophy
advances in medical science
in preposition WEARING
14. wearing
Do you recognize that man in the grey suit?
Pat can't resist men in uniform.
You look nice in green (= green clothes) .
in preposition COMPARING AMOUNTS
15. used to compare one part of an amount of something with the total amount of it
Apparently one in ten people/one person in ten has problems with reading.
UK The basic rate of income tax is 25 pence in ( US on ) the pound.
in preposition CHARACTERISTIC
16. used to show which characteristic or part of a person or thing is being described
The new version is worse in every respect - I much preferred the original.
Are the two bags equal in weight?
She's deaf in her left ear.
in preposition CAUSE
17. [ + -ing verb ] used to show when doing one thing is the cause of another thing happening
In refus ing (= Because she refused) to work abroad, she missed an excellent job opportunity.
The government banned tobacco advertising and, in doing so (= because of this) , contributed greatly to the nation's health.
including preposition
used for saying that a person or thing is part of a particular group or amount
Eight people, including two children, were injured in the explosion.
Including Christmas Day and Boxing Day, I've got a week off work.
inside adverb , preposition , adjective
1. in or into a room, building, container, or something similar
"Is Anna in the garden?" "No, she's inside (= in the house) ."
What's inside the box?
Luckily, no one was inside the building when it collapsed.
figurative She couldn't cope with the grief she felt inside.
figurative Who can tell what goes on inside his head?
He put the documents carefully in his inside pocket (= pocket on the inside of a jacket or coat) .
inside preposition ( also inside of )
If you do something or if something happens inside (of) a particular time or limit, you do it or it happens in less than that amount of time or under the limit
The new faster trains can do the journey inside two hours.
He finished it inside of two hours.
into preposition INSIDE
1. towards the inside or middle of something and about to be contained, surrounded or closed off by it
Would you put the jar back into the cupboard for me, please?
Shall we go into the garden?
Stop running around and get into bed!
I can't get into these trousers anymore. They're far too small for me.
into preposition CHANGE
2. used to show when a person or thing is changing from one form or condition to another
Peel the cucumber and chop it into small cubes.
There was a series of explosions and the van burst into flames (= started to burn violently) .
Her novels have been translated into nineteen languages.
We're planning to turn the smallest bedroom into an office.
into preposition TOUCHING FORCEFULLY
3. used to show movement which involves something touching something else with a lot of force but without moving inside it
He's always walking into things when he hasn't got his glasses on.
into preposition TOWARDS
4. in the direction of something or someone
She was looking straight into his eyes.
into preposition ABOUT
5. involving or about something
an inquiry into the cause of the accident
into preposition DIVISION
6. used when referring to the division of one number by another number
What's 5 into 125?
into preposition INTERESTED
7. enthusiastic about or interested in
Jackie's really into classical music.
less preposition
The total is thirty pounds, less the five pounds deposit that you've paid.
like preposition , conjunction SIMILAR TO
1. similar to; in the same way or manner as
He looks like his brother.
She's very much like her mother (= She is similar in appearance or character) .
Is Japanese food like Chinese?
I've got a sweater just like that.
Her hair was so soft it was like silk.
You're acting like a complete idiot!
She sings like an angel!
Like I said (= As I have already said) , I don't wear perfume.
Like most people (= As most people would) , I'd prefer to have enough money not to work
It feels/seems like (= It seems to me) ages since we last spoke.
There's nothing like a good cup of coffee (= it's better than anything) !
like preposition , conjunction AS IF
2. in a way that suggests
It looks like I'm going to be in the office until late tonight.
It looks like rain (= I think it is going to rain) .
It sounds to me like you ought to change jobs.
You look like you've just got out of bed!
not standard She acts like she's stupid!
like preposition TYPICAL OF
1. typical or characteristic of
That's just like Maisie to turn up half an hour late to her own party!
It's not like you to be so quiet - are you all right, my love?
like preposition SUCH AS
2. such as
She looks best in bright, vibrant colours, like red and pink.
mid preposition old-fashioned literary
among or in the middle of
midst preposition literary
The summit of the mountain appeared midst the clouds.
minus preposition
1. reduced by a stated number
What is 57 minus 39?
That will be £1500, minus the deposit of £150 that you have already paid.
minus preposition
2. informal without; lacking
We're minus a chair for Ian - could you get one from the other room?
near adverb , preposition
1. not far away in distance
Is there a train station near here?
I'd like to sit near a window, please.
Don't come too near me - you might catch my cold.
The hotel is near the airport.
Which bus stop is nearest (to) your house?
I was standing just near enough to hear what they were saying.
near adverb , preposition
2. not far away in time
As the date of his operation drew near, he became more and more anxious.
Her birthday was getting nearer and I still hadn't bought her a present.
UK We can decide which route to take nearer the time.
near adverb , preposition
3. almost in a particular state or condition
The runners looked near exhaustion.
I was near (to) tears (= almost cried) at one point during the film.
'neath preposition literary
'Neath stars and sun we wandered
nigh adverb , preposition old-fashioned or literary
She must have written nigh on (= nearly but not quite) 50 books.
The time is nigh (= It is nearly time) for us to make a decision.
notwithstanding preposition , adverb formal
despite the fact or thing mentioned
Notwithstanding some members' objections, I think we must go ahead with the plan.
Injuries notwithstanding, he won the semi-final match.
o' preposition
used in writing to represent 'of' when its f is not pronounced
a bottle o' beer
O' preposition
used as part of many last names
Jeanne O'Connor
o'er preposition literary
O'er land and sea they sped.
of preposition POSSESSION
1. used to show possession, belonging or origin
a friend of mine
the president of the United States
employees of the company
the colour of his hair
a habit of mine
that revolting dog of hers
the love of a good woman
the complete plays of (= written by) Federico Garcia Lorca
of preposition AMOUNT
2. used after words or phrases expressing amount, number or a particular unit
a kilo of apples
loads of food
hundreds of people
most of them
none of them
both of us
a third of all people
a speck of dust
a drop of rain
of preposition CONTAINING
3. containing
a bag of sweets
a bottle of beer
a book of short stories
sacks of rubbish
a class of idiots
of preposition POSITION
4. used in expressions showing position
the top of his head
the back of your dress
on the corner of the street
the front of the queue
I've never been north of Edinburgh.
of preposition TYPICAL
5. typical or characteristic of
She has the face of an angel.
That man's got the brain of a donkey!
of preposition DAYS
6. used to refer to a particular date in a month
the eleventh of March
the first of the month
of preposition MADE OF
7. made or consisting of; having
dresses of lace and silk
plates of gold and silver
a land of ice and snow
a woman of great charm
a subject of very little interest
8. used to connect particular adjectives and verbs with nouns
fond of swimming
sick of his excuses
frightened of spiders
of preposition JUDGMENT
9. used after an adjective when judging someone's behaviour
It was a bit unkind of you to mention her weight.
Thank you so much for my present. How thoughtful of you.
of preposition RELATING TO
10. about; relating to
Speaking of Elizabeth, here she is.
One of the advantages of travelling by train is being able to read.
Let us consider the events of the last five months.
Of her childhood we know very little.
And what of (= Tell me about) young Adrian? How is he?
of preposition THAT IS/ARE
11. that is/are
the problem of homelessness
a rise of 2% in inflation
the skill of negotiating
the difficulty of bringing up twins
the pain of separation
At the age of six she could read a newspaper.
of preposition DONE TO
12. done to
the massacre of hundreds of innocent people
the oppression of a nation
the destruction of the rain forest
of preposition FELT BY
13. felt or experienced by
the suffering of millions
the anguish of the murdered child's parents
of preposition THROUGH
14. through; having as the cause
He died of cancer.
I didn't have to go there - I did it of my own free will.
I want to know how it happened because it certainly didn't happen of itself.
of preposition COMPARING
15. used when comparing related things
Best of all I liked the green one.
Worst of all was the food!
He's the best looking of the three brothers.
I think that of all his films it's my favourite.
of preposition TIME
16. US used in saying what the time is
It's ten (minutes) of five (= ten minutes before five o'clock) .
of preposition SEPARATE FROM
17. used in expressions showing distance from something in place or time
We live within a mile of the city centre.
She came within two seconds of beating the world record.
of preposition LOSS
18. used in expressions showing loss
They were robbed of all their savings.
I feel I've been deprived of your company.
of preposition DURING
19. old-fashioned during
I like to relax with a pipe of an evening.
off preposition AWAY FROM
1. down or away from a place or position, especially the present place, position or time
There was a 'Keep off the grass' sign.
All the berries had dropped off the tree.
He fell off his bike.
We're still a long way off our target of £30,000.
I hope she knows where to get off (= leave) the bus/train.
How far off finishing the project are we (= How much more is there to do) ?
We've been working on the flat for six months now but we're still a long way off finish ing .
We're not far off (= We are quite near) London now.
off preposition REMOVED
2. used with actions in which something is removed or removes itself from another thing
I can't get the lid off this jar.
Has anyone taken a book off my desk?
Could you cut me a small piece off that big white cheese?
Take your feet off that seat, young man!
I don't like taking money off you (= asking you for money) !
Get off me (= Stop touching me) !
not standard I got the knife off of him before he ran away.
off preposition NOT LIKING
3. not liking or taking something or someone
He's been off his food ever since he had the stomach upset.
I used to love wine but I've gone off it (= stopped liking it) recently.
She's well enough to be off the medicine now.
The doctor says he can come off the tablets.
She's been off drugs for a year now.
off preposition NEAR TO
4. near to
He lives just off the main road.
It's an island off the east coast of Spain.
on preposition ABOVE
1. used to show that something is in a position above something else and touching it, or that something is moving into such a position
Look at all the books on your desk!
Ow, you're standing on my foot!
Your suitcase is on top of the wardrobe.
They live in that old farmhouse on the hill.
I got on my bike and left.

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