Saturday, 14 September 2013

Some Prepositions in Detail

off 1 / Qf ; AmE ; / adverb , preposition   For special uses with many verbs, for example go off , look at the verb entries.
  1  down or away from a place or a position on sth :
to fall off a ladder/motorbike/wall We got off the bus. I shouted to him but he just walked off . I must be off ( =I must leave here ) . It's getting late. When are you off to Spain? ( figurative ) We've got off the subject.
  2 used to say that something has been removed : She took her coat off . He shook the rain off his umbrella.
  3 joined to and leading away from : My road is off the Cowley Road.
  4 at some distance from sth : The Isle of Wight is just off the south coast of England. Christmas is still a long way off ( =it is a long time till then ) .
  5 (used about a machine, a light, etc.) not connected, working or being used : Please make sure the TV/light/heating is off . OPPOSITE on
  6 not present at work, school, etc. : She's off work/ off sick with a cold. I'm having a day off ( =a day's holiday ) next week.
  7 (used about a plan or arrangement) not going to happen; cancelled : The meeting/wedding/trip is off . OPPOSITE on
  8 cheaper; less by a certain amount : cars with £400 off £400 off the price of a car
  9 not eating or using sth : The baby's off his food.
off and on ; on and off sometimes; starting and stopping :
It rained on and off all day.
off limits that you are not allowed to do; where you are not allowed to go
off the top of your head top 1
well/badly off having/not having a lot of money

after / "A:ftJ(r) ; AmE / preposition , conjunction , adverb
  1 later than sth; at a later time : Ian phoned just after six o'clock. the week after next I hope to arrive some time after lunch. They arrived at the station after the train had left. After we had finished our dinner, we went into the garden. I went out yesterday morning, and after that I was at home all day. That was in April. Soon after , I heard that he was ill.   It is more common to use afterwards at the end of a sentence: We played tennis and went to Angela's house afterwards.
  2 afterrepeated many times or continuing for a long time :
day after day of hot weather I've told them time after time not to do that.
  3 following or behind sb/sth : Shut the door after you. C comes after B in the alphabet.
  4 looking for or trying to catch or get sb/sth : The police were after him. Nicky is after a job in advertising.
  5 because of sth : After the way he behaved I won't invite him here again.
  6 used when sb/sth is given the name of another person or thing : We called our son Bill after his grandfather.
after all   1 used when sth is different in reality to what sb expected or thought : So you decided to come after all! ( =I thought you weren't going to come )
  2 used for reminding sb of a certain fact : She can't understand. After all, she's only two.

out 1 / aUt ; AmE / adverb , preposition   For special uses with many verbs, for example look out , look at the verb entries.
  1  away from the inside of a place :
He opened the drawer and took a fork out . She opened the window and put her head out . Can you show me the way out ? look at out of
  2 not at home or in your place of work : The manager was out when she called. I'd love a night out – I'm bored with staying at home.
  3 a long distance away from a place, for example from land or your country : The current is quite strong so don't swim too far out .
  4 (used about the sea) when the water is furthest away from the land : Don't swim when the tide is on the way out .
  5 used for showing that sth is no longer hidden : I love the spring when all the flowers are out . The secret's out now. There's no point pretending any more.
  6 made available to the public; published : There'll be a lot of controversy when her book comes out next year.
  7 in a loud voice; clearly : She cried out in pain.
  8 not in fashion : Short skirts are out this season.
  9 ( spoken ) not possible or acceptable :
I'm afraid Friday is out . I've got a meeting that day.
10 (used about a player in a game or sport) not allowed to continue playing : If you get three answers wrong, you're out .
11 ( sport ) (used about a ball, etc.) not inside the playing area and therefore not allowed
12 (used when you are calculating sth) making or containing a mistake; wrong : My guess was only out by a few centimetres.
13 (used about a light or a fire) not on; not burning : The lights are out . They must be in bed. Once the fire was completely out , experts were sent in to inspect the damage.
be out for sth ; be out to do sth to try hard to get or do sth :
I'm not out for revenge.
be/come out to tell family, friends, etc. that you are a homosexual
out-and-out complete :
It was out-and-out war between us.
out loud = aloud
get / get ; AmE / verb ( present participle getting ; past got / gQt ; AmE /; past participle got AmE gotten / "gQtn ; AmE / )
  1 [ transitive ] ( no passive ) to receive, obtain or buy sth :
I got a letter from my sister. Did you get a present for your mother? Did you get your mother a present? She got a job in a travel agency. Louise got 75% in the maths exam. I'll come if I can get time off work. How much did you get for your old car ( =when you sold it ) ? to get a shock/surprise
  2 [ transitive ] have/has got sth to have sth :
I've got a lot to do today. Lee's got blond hair. Have you got a spare pen?
  3 [ transitive ] ( no passive ) to go to a place and bring sth back; fetch :
Go and get me a pen, please. Sam's gone to get his mother from the station.
  4 [ intransitive ] to become; to reach a particular state or condition; to make sb/sth be in a particular state or condition :
It's getting dark. to get angry/bored/hungry/fat I can't get used to my new bed. to get dressed When did you get married ? to get pregnant Just give me five minutes to get ready . He's always getting into trouble with the police. She's shy, but she's great fun once you get to know her.
  5 [ intransitive ] to arrive at or reach a place :
We should get to London at about ten. Can you tell me how to get to the hospital? What time do you usually get home ? I got half way up the mountain then gave up. How far have you got with your book? look at get in , on , etc.
  6 [ intransitive, transitive ] to move or go somewhere; to move or put sth somewhere :
I can't swim so I couldn't get across the river. My grandmother's 92 and she doesn't get out of the house much. We couldn't get the piano upstairs. My foot was swollen and I couldn't get my shoe off.
  7 [ intransitive ] used instead of 'be' in the passive :
She got bitten by a dog. Don't leave your wallet on the table or it'll get stolen.
  8 [ transitive ] get sth done, mended, etc. to cause sth to be done, mended , etc. :
Let's get this work done, then we can go out. I'm going to get my hair cut .
  9 [ transitive ] get sb/sth to do sth to make or persuade sb/sth to do sth :
I got him to agree to the plan. I can't get the television to work.
10 [ transitive ] to catch or have an illness, pain, etc. :
I think I'm getting a cold. He gets really bad headaches.
11 [ transitive ] to use a form of transport :
Shall we walk or get the bus?
12 [ intransitive ] to hit, hold or catch sb/sth :
He got me by the throat and threatened to kill me. A boy threw a stone at me but he didn't get me.
13 [ transitive ] to hear or understand sth :
I'm sorry, I didn't get that. Could you repeat it? Did you get that joke that Karen told?
14 [ transitive ] get (sb) sth ; get sth (for sb) to prepare food :
Can I get you anything to eat? Joe's in the kitchen getting breakfast for everyone.
15 [ intransitive ] get to do sth to have the chance to do sth :
Did you get to try the new computer?
16 [ intransitive ] ( used with verbs in the -ing form ) to start doing sth :
We don't have much time so we'd better get working. I got talking to a woman on the bus. We'd better get going if we don't want to be late.
get somewhere/nowhere (with sb/sth) to make/not make progress :
I'm getting nowhere with my research.
For other idioms containing get , look at the noun and adjective entries, for example for get rid of look at rid .
get about/around to move or travel from place to place :
My grandmother needs a stick to get around these days.
get about/around/round (used about news, a story, etc.) to become known by many people
get sth across (to sb) to succeed in making people understand sth :
The party failed to get its policies across to the voters.
get ahead to progress and be successful in sth, especially a career
get along   1 ( spoken ) ( usually used in the continuous tenses ) to leave a place :
I'd love to stay, but I should be getting along now.
  2 get on
get around   1 get about/around
  2 get about/around/round
get around sb get round/around sb
get around sth get round/around sth
get around to sth/doing sth get round/around to sth/doing sth
get at sb to criticize sb a lot :
The teacher's always getting at me about my spelling.
get at sb/sth to be able to reach sth; to have sth available for immediate use :
The files are locked away and I can't get at them.
get at sth ( only used in the continuous tenses ) to try to say sth without saying it in a direct way; to suggest :
I'm not quite sure what you're getting at – am I doing something wrong?
get away (from…) to succeed in leaving or escaping from sb or a place :
He kept talking to me and I couldn't get away from him. The thieves got away in a stolen car.
get away with sth/doing sth to do sth bad and not be punished for it :
He lied but he got away with it.
get back to return to the place where you live or work
get sth back to be given sth that you had lost or lent :
Can I borrow this book? You'll get it back next week, I promise.
get back to sb to speak to, write to or telephone sb later, especially in order to give an answer :
I'll get back to you on prices when I've got some more information.
get back to sth to return to doing sth or talking about sth :
I woke up early and couldn't get back to sleep. Let's get back to the point you raised earlier.
get behind (with sth) to fail to do, pay sth, etc. on time, and so have more to do, pay, etc. the next time :
to get behind with your work/rent
get by (on/in/with sth) to manage to live or do sth with difficulty :
It's very hard to get by on such a low income. My Italian is good and I can get by in Spanish.
get sb down to make sb unhappy
get down to sth/doing sth to start working on sth :
We'd better stop chatting and get down to work. I must get down to answering these letters.
get in to reach a place :
What time does your train get in?
get in; get into sth   1 to climb into a car : We all got in and Tim drove off.
  2 to be elected to a political position : She got into Parliament in 1999.
get sb in to call sb to your house to do a job
get sth in   1 to collect or bring sth inside; to buy a supply of sth : It's going to rain – I'd better get the washing in from outside.
  2 to manage to find an opportunity to say or do sth : He talked all the time and I couldn't get a word in.
get in on sth to become involved in an activity
get into sb ( informal )
(used about a feeling or attitude) to start affecting sb strongly, causing them to behave in an unusual way :
I wonder what's got into him – he isn't usually unfriendly.
get into sth   1 to put on a piece of clothing with difficulty : I've put on so much weight I can't get into my trousers.
  2 to start a particular activity; to become involved in sth : How did you first get into the music business? She has got into the habit of turning up late. We got into an argument about politics.
  3 to become more interested in or familiar with sth : I've been getting into yoga recently.
get off (sb/sth) used especially to tell sb to stop touching you/sb/sth :
Get off (me) or I'll call the police! Get off that money, it's mine!
get off (sth)   1 to leave a bus, train, etc.; to climb down from a bicycle, horse, etc.
  2 to leave work with permission at a particular time : I might be able to get off early today.
get off (with sth) to be lucky to receive no serious injuries or punishment :
to get off with just a warning
get on   1 to progress or become successful in life, in a career, etc.
  2 ( only used in the continuous tenses ) to be getting old :
He's getting on – he's over 70, I'm sure.
  3 ( only used in the continuous tenses ) to be getting late :
Time's getting on – we don't want to be late.
get on/along to have a particular amount of success :
How are you getting on in your course? ‘How did you get on at your interview?’ ‘I got the job!’
get on/along with sb ; get on/along (together) to have a friendly relationship with sb :
Do you get on well with your colleagues?
get on/along with sth to make progress with sth that you are doing :
How are you getting on with that essay?
get on/onto sth to climb onto a bus, train, bicycle, horse, etc. :
I got on just as the train was about to leave.
get on for ( only used in the continuous tenses ) to be getting near to a certain time or age :
I'm not sure how old he is but he must be getting on for 50.
get on to sb (about sth) to speak or write to sb about a particular matter
get on with sth to continue doing sth, especially after an interruption :
Stop talking and get on with your work!
get out (used about a piece of information) to become known, after being secret until now
get sth out (of sth) to take sth from its container :
I got my keys out of my bag.
get out of sth/doing sth to avoid a duty or doing sth that you have said you will do
get sth out of sb to persuade or force sb to give you sth
get sth out of sb/sth to gain sth from sb/sth :
I get a lot of pleasure out of music.
get over sth   1 to deal with a problem successfully : We'll have to get over the problem of finding somewhere to live first.
  2 to feel normal again after being ill or having an unpleasant experience : He still hasn't got over his wife's death.
get sth over with ( informal )
to do and complete sth unpleasant that has to be done :
I'll be glad to get my visit to the dentist's over with.
get round get about/around/round
get round/around sb ( informal )
to persuade sb to do sth or agree with sth :
My father says he won't lend me the money but I think I can get round him.
get round/around sth to find a way of avoiding or dealing with a problem
get round/around to sth/doing sth to find the time to do sth, after a delay :
I've been meaning to reply to that letter for ages but I haven't got round to it yet.
get through sth to use or complete a certain amount or number of sth :
I got through a lot of money at the weekend. I got through an enormous amount of work today.
get (sb) through (sth) to manage to complete sth difficult or unpleasant; to help sb to do this :
She got through her final exams easily.
get through (to sb)   1 to succeed in making sb understand sth : They couldn't get through to him that he was completely wrong.
  2 to succeed in speaking to sb on the telephone : I couldn't get through to them because their phone was engaged all day.
get to sb ( informal )
to affect sb in a bad way :
Public criticism is beginning to get to the team manager.
get sb/sth together to collect people or things in one place :
I'll just get my things together and then we'll go.
get together (with sb) to meet socially or in order to discuss or do sth :
Let's get together and talk about it.
get up to stand up :
He got up to let an elderly woman sit down.
get (sb) up to get out of bed or make sb get out of bed :
What time do you have to get up in the morning? Could you get me up at 6 tomorrow?
get up to sth   1 to reach a particular point or stage in sth : We've got up to the last section of our grammar book.
  2 to be busy with sth, especially sth secret or bad : I wonder what the children are getting up to?

round 2 / raUnd ; AmE / adverb , preposition   For special uses with many verbs, for example come round , get round , go round , etc. see the verb entries.
  1  in a circle or curve; on all sides of sth :
He had a bandage right round his head. We sat round the table, talking late into the night. We were just talking about Ravi and he came round the corner . How long would it take to walk round the world? ( figurative ) It wasn't easy to see a way round the problem ( =a way of solving it ) .
  2 in a full circle : The wheels spun round and round but the car wouldn't move.
  3 turning to look or go in the opposite direction : Don't look round but the teacher's just come in. She turned the car round and drove off.
  4 from one place, person, etc. to another : Pass the photographs round for everyone to see. I've been rushing round all day.
  5 in or to a particular area or place : Do you live round here? I'll come round to see you at about 8 o'clock.
  6 in or to many parts of sth : Let me show you round the house. He spent six months travelling round Europe.
round about (sth) in the area near a place; approximately :
We hope to arrive round about 6.
the other way round in the opposite way or order :
My appointment's at 3 and Lella's is at 3.15 – or was it the other way round ?   Around has the same meaning as round and is more common in American English.

of / Jv ; AmE strong form Qv ; AmE / preposition
  1 belonging to, connected with, or part of sth/sb : the roof of the house the result of the exam the back of the book the leader of the party a friend of mine ( =one of my friends )
  2 made, done or produced by sb : the poems of Milton
  3 used for saying what sb/sth is or what a thing contains or is made of : a woman of intelligence the city of Paris a glass of milk a crowd of people It's made of silver. a feeling of anger
  4 showing sb/sth : a map of York a photograph of my parents
  5 used for showing that sb/sth is part of a larger group : some of the people three of the houses
  6 used with measurements, directions and expressions of time and age : a litre of milk the fourth of July a girl of 12 an increase of 2.5% five miles north of Leeds
  7 used for indicating the reason for or cause of sth : He died of pneumonia.
  8 used with some adjectives : I'm proud of you. She's jealous of her.
  9 used with some verbs : This perfume smells of roses. Think of a number. It reminds me of you.
10 used after a noun describing an action to show either who did the action or who it happened to : the arrival of the president ( =he arrives ) the murder of the president ( =he is murdered )

at / Jt ; AmE strong form &t ; AmE / preposition
  1 used to show where sb/sth is or where sth happens : at the bottom/top of the page He was standing at the door. Change trains at Chester. We were at home all weekend. Are the children at school? ‘Where's Peter?’ ‘He's at Sue's.’ ( =at Sue's house )
  2 used to show when sth happens : I start work at 9 o'clock. at the weekend at night at Easter She got married at 18 ( =when she was 18 ) .
  3 in the direction of sb/sth : What are you looking at ? He pointed a gun at the policeman. Don't shout at me!
  4 because of sth : I was surprised at her behaviour. We laughed at his jokes.
  5 used to show what sb is doing or what is happening : They were hard at work . The two countries were at war .
  6 used to show the price, rate, speed, etc. of sth : We were travelling at about 50 miles per hour.
  7 used with adjectives that show how well sb/sth does sth : She's not very good at French.
  8 ( computing ) the symbol (@) used in email addresses

up 1 / Vp ; AmE / preposition , adverb   For special uses with many verbs, for example pick sth up , look at the verb entries.
  1  at or to a high or higher level or position :
The monkey climbed up the tree. I carried her suitcase up to the third floor. Put your hand up if you know the answer. I walked up the hill.
  2 in or into a vertical position : Stand up , please. Is he up ( =out of bed ) yet?
  3 used for showing an increase in sth : Prices have gone up . Turn the volume up .
  4 used with verbs of closing or covering : Do up your coat. It's cold. She tied the parcel up with string. I found some wood to cover up the hole.
  5 to the place where sb/sth is : She ran up to her mother and kissed her. A car drove up and two men got out.
  6 coming or being put together : The teacher collected up our exam papers. Asif and Joe teamed up in the doubles competition.
  7 (used about a period of time) finished : Stop writing. Your time's up .
  8 into pieces : We chopped the old table up and used it for firewood. She tore up the letter and threw it away.
  9 used for showing that an action continues until it is completed : Eat up , everybody, I want you to finish everything on the table. Can you help me clean up the kitchen?
10 in a particular direction : I live just up the road . Move up a little and let me sit down.
11 in or to the north : My parents have just moved up north . When are you going up to Scotland?
12 ( computing ) working; in operation : Are the computers back up yet?
13 ( informal ) used for showing that sth is spoiled :
I really messed up when I told the interviewer I liked sleeping.
be up for sth   1 to be available to be bought or chosen : That house is up for sale. How many candidates are up for election?
  2 ( informal ) to be ready to do sth and enthusiastic about doing it :
Is anyone up for a swim?
be up to sb to be sb's responsibility :
I can't take the decision. It's not up to me.
not up to much ( informal )
not very good :
The programme wasn't up to much.
up against sth/sb facing sth/sb that causes problems
up and down backwards and forwards, or rising and falling :
He was nervously walking up and down outside the interview room.
up and running (used about sth new) working well
up to sth   1 as much/many as : We're expecting up to 100 people at the meeting.
  2 as far as now : Up to now, things have been easy.
  3 capable of sth : I don't feel up to cooking this evening. I'm too tired.
  4 doing sth secret and perhaps bad : What are the children up to? Go and see.
what's up? ( informal )
what's the matter?

above / J"bVv ; AmE / preposition , adjective , adverb
  1 in a higher place : The people in the flat above make a lot of noise. The coffee is in the cupboard above the sink.
  2 in an earlier part (of sth written) : Contact me at the above address/the address above . HELP   The opposite is below , but note that below is not used before a noun: Contact me at the address below.
  3 more than a number, amount, price, etc. : children aged 11 and above A score of 70 and above will get you a grade B. You must get above 50% to pass. above-average temperatures OPPOSITE below
look at over
  4 with a higher position in an organization, etc. : The person above me is the department manager. OPPOSITE below
  5 too proud to do sth : He seems to think he's above helping with the cleaning.
above all (used to emphasize the main point) most importantly :
Above all, stay calm!
(be) above board (used especially about a business deal, etc.) honest and open

over 1 / "JUvJ(r) ; AmE / adverb , preposition   For special uses with many verbs, for example get over sth , look at the verb entries.
  1  straight above sth, but not touching it :
There's a painting over the bookcase. We watched the plane fly over . look at above
  2 covering sth : He was holding a towel over the cut. She hung her coat over the back of the chair.
  3 across to the other side of sth : The horse jumped over the fence. a bridge over the river
  4 on or to the other side : The student turned the paper over and read the first question.
  5 down or sideways from an upright position : He leaned over to speak to the woman next to him. I fell over in the street this morning.
  6 above or more than a number, price, etc. : She lived in Athens for over ten years. suitable for children aged 10 and over
  7 used for expressing distance : He's over in America at the moment. Sit down over there . Come over here , please.
  8 not used; still remaining : There are a lot of cakes left over from the party.
  9 ( used with all ) everywhere :
There was blood all over the place . I can't find my glasses. I've looked all over for them.
10 used for saying that sth is repeated : You'll have to start all over again ( =from the beginning ) . She kept saying the same thing over and over again .
11 about; on the subject of : We quarrelled over money.
12 during : We met several times over the Christmas holiday.

on / Qn ; AmE ; / adverb , preposition   For special uses with many verbs and nouns, for example get on , on holiday , see the verb and noun entries.
  1  (also formal upon ) supported by, fixed to or touching sth, especially a surface :
on the table/ceiling/wall We sat on the beach/grass/floor. She was carrying the baby on her back. Write it down on a piece of paper. The ball hit me on the head.
  2 in a place or position : on a farm/housing estate/campsite a house on the river/seafront/border I live on the other side of town.
  3 showing direction : on the right/left on the way to school
  4 used with ways of travelling and types of travel : on the bus/train/plane We came on foot ( =we walked ) . Eddie went past on his bike. to go on a trip/journey/excursion HELP   Note that we say in the car .
  5 with expressions of time : on August 19th on Monday on Christmas Day on your birthday
  6 working; being used : All the lights were on. Switch the television on . OPPOSITE off
  7 wearing sth; carrying sth in your pocket or bag : What did she have on ? to put your shoes/coat/hat/make-up on I've got no money on me. You should carry ID on you at all times.
  8 about sth : We've got a test on irregular verbs tomorrow. a talk/a book/an article on Japan
  9 happening or arranged to happen : What's on at the cinema? Is the meeting still on, or has it been cancelled?
10 using sth; by means of sth : I was (talking) on the phone to Laura. I saw it on television . I cut my hand on some glass. Dave spends most evenings on the Internet .
11 showing the thing or person that is affected by an action or is the object of an action : Divorce can have a bad effect on children. He spends a lot on clothes. Don't waste your time on that.
12 using drugs or medicine; using a particular kind of food or fuel : to be on medication/antibiotics/heroin Gorillas live on leaves and fruit. Does this car run on petrol or diesel?
13 receiving a certain amount of money : What will you be on ( =how much will you earn ) in your new job? He's been (living) on unemployment benefit since he lost his job.
14 showing that sth continues : The man shouted at us but we walked on. The speeches went on and on until everyone was bored.
15 showing the reason for or basis for sth : She doesn't eat meat on principle . The film is based on a true story.
16 compared to : Sales are up 10% on last year.
17 immediately; soon after : He telephoned her on his return from New York.
18 paid for by sb : The drinks are on me!
from now/then on starting from this/that time and continuing :
From then on she never smoked another cigarette.
not on ( informal )
not acceptable :
No, you can't stay out that late. It's just not on.
off and on ; on and off off 1
be/go on at sb go 1

into / "IntJ ; AmE before vowels "IntJ ; AmE "Intu: ; AmE / preposition
  1 moving to a position inside or in sth : Come into the house. I'm going into town. OPPOSITE out of ( 1 )
  2 in the direction of sth : Please speak into the microphone. At this point we were driving into the sun and had to shade our eyes.
  3 to a point at which you hit sth : I backed the car into a wall. She walked into a glass door.
  4 showing a change from one thing to another : We're turning the spare room into a study. She changed into her jeans. Translate the passage into German.
  5 concerning or involving sth : an inquiry into safety procedures
  6 ( mathematics ) used when you are talking about dividing numbers : 7 into 28 goes 4 times.
be into sth ( spoken )
to be very interested in sth, for example as a hobby :
I'm really into canoeing.

with / wID ; AmE wIT ; AmE / preposition
  1 in the company of sb/sth; in or to the same place as sb/sth : I live with my parents. Are you coming with us? I talked about the problem with my tutor.
  2 having or carrying sth : a girl with red hair a house with a garden the man with the suitcase
  3 using sth : Cut it with a knife. I did it with his help.
  4 used for saying what fills, covers, etc. sth : Fill the bowl with water. His hands were covered with oil.
  5 in competition with sb/sth; against sb/sth : He's always arguing with his brother. I usually play tennis with my sister.
  6 towards, concerning or compared with sb/sth : Is he angry with us? There's a problem with my visa. Compared with Canada, England has mild winters.
  7 including sth : The price is for two people with all meals.
  8 used to say how sth happens or is done : Open this parcel with care. to greet sb with a smile
  9 because of sth; as a result of sth : We were shivering with cold. With all the problems we've got, we're not going to finish on time.
10 in the care of sb : We left the keys with the neighbours.
11 agreeing with or supporting sb/sth : We've got everybody with us on this issue. OPPOSITE against
12 at the same time as sth : I can't concentrate with you watching me all the time.
be with sb to be able to follow what sb is saying :
I'm not quite with you. Say it again.

to / tJ ; AmE , before vowels tu ; AmE , strong form tu: ; AmE / preposition , adverb
  1 in the direction of; as far as : She's going to London. Turn to the left. Pisa is to the west of Florence. He has gone to school.
  2 used to show the end or limit of a series of things or period of time : from Monday to Friday from beginning to end
  3 used to show the person or thing that receives sth : Give that to me. I am very grateful to my parents. What have you done to your hair? Sorry, I didn't realize you were talking to me.
  4 (nearly) touching sth; directed towards sth : He put his hands to his ears. They sat back to back. She made no reference to her personal problems.
  5 reaching a particular state : The meat was cooked to perfection. His speech reduced her to tears ( =made her cry ) .
  6 used to introduce the second part of a comparison : I prefer theatre to opera.
  7 (used for expressing quantity) for each unit of money, measurement, etc. : How many dollars are there to the euro?
  8 (used to say what time it is) before : It's ten to three ( =ten minutes before three o'clock ) .
  9 used to express sb's opinion or feeling about sth : To me, it was the wrong decision. It sounded like a good idea to me. I don't think our friendship means anything to him.
10 used for expressing a reaction or attitude to sth : To my surprise, I saw two strangers coming out of my house. His paintings aren't really to my taste.
11 used with verbs to form the infinitive : I want to go home now. Don't forget to write. I didn't know what to do.
12 / tu: ; AmE / (used about a door) in or into a closed position :
Push the door to .
to and fro backwards and forwards

behind / bI"haInd ; AmE / preposition , adverb
  1 in, at or to the back of sb/sth : There's a small garden behind the house. The sun went behind a cloud. You go on ahead. I'll follow on behind . Look behind you before you drive off. He ran off but the police were close behind .
  2 behind (in/with) (sth) later or less good than sb/sth; making less progress than sb/sth :
The train is twenty minutes behind schedule. Jane is behind the rest of the class in maths. We are a month behind with the rent. look at ahead
  3 supporting or agreeing with sb/sth : Whatever she decides, her family will be behind her.
  4 responsible for causing or starting sth : What is the reason behind his sudden change of opinion?
  5 used to say that sth is in sb's past : It's time you put your problems behind you ( =forgot about them ) .
  6 in the place where sb/sth is or was : Oh no! I've left the tickets behind ( =at home ) .

in 1 / In ; AmE / adverb , preposition   For special uses with many nouns, for example in time , look at the noun entries. For special uses with many verbs, for example give in , look at the verb entries.
  1  (used to show place) inside or to a position inside a particular area or object :
a country in Africa an island in the Pacific in a box I read about it in the newspaper. He lay in bed . She put the keys in her pocket. His wife's in hospital . She opened the door and went in. My suitcase is full. I can't get any more in. When does the train get in ( =to the station ) ?
  2 at home or at work : I phoned him last night but he wasn't in. She won't be in till late today.
  3 (showing time) during a period of time : My birthday is in August. in spring/summer/autumn/winter He was born in 1980. You could walk there in about an hour ( =it would take that long to walk there ) .
  4 (showing time) after a period of time : I'll be finished in ten minutes.
  5 wearing sth : They were all dressed in black for the funeral. I've never seen you in a suit before. a woman in a yellow dress
  6 showing the condition or state of sb/sth : My father is in poor health. This room is in a mess ! Richard's in love . He's in his mid-thirties.
  7 showing sb's job or the activity sb is involved in : He's got a good job in advertising. All her family are in politics ( =they are politicians ) . He's in the army.
  8 contained in; forming the whole or part of sth : There are 31 days in January. What's in this casserole?
  9 used for saying how things are arranged : We sat in a circle. She had her hair in plaits.
10 used for saying how sth is written or expressed : Please write in pen. They were talking in Italian/French/Polish . to work in groups/teams
11 used with feelings : I watched in horror as the plane crashed to the ground. He was in such a rage I didn't dare to go near him.
12 used for giving the rate of sth and for talking about numbers : One family in ten owns a dishwasher.
13 received by sb official : Entries should be in by 20 March. All applications must be in by Friday.
14 (used about the sea) at the highest point, when the water is closest to the land : The tide's coming in.
be in for it/sth to be going to experience sth unpleasant :
He'll be in for a shock when he gets the bill. You'll be in for it when Mum sees what you've done.
be/get in on sth to be included or involved in sth :
I'd like to be in on the new project.
have (got) it in for sb ( informal )
to be unpleasant to sb because they have done sth to upset you :
The boss has had it in for me ever since I asked to be considered for the new post.

down 1 / daUn ; AmE / adverb , preposition
  1 to or at a lower level or place; from the top towards the bottom of sth : Can you get that book down from the top shelf? ‘Where's Mary?’ ‘She's down in the basement.’ Her hair hung down her back. The rain was running down the window.
  2 along : We sailed down the river towards the sea. ‘Where's the nearest garage?’ ‘Go down this road and take the first turning on the right.’
  3 from a standing or vertical position to a sitting or horizontal one : I think I'll sit/lie down .
  4 to or in the south : We went down to Devon for our holiday.
  5 used for showing that the level, amount, strength, etc. of sth is less or lower : Do you mind if I turn the heating down a bit?
  6 (written) on paper : Put these dates down in your diary.
  7 down to sb/sth even including :
We had everything planned down to the last detail.
be down to sb to be sb's responsibility :
When my father died it was down to me to look after the family's affairs.
be down to sth to have only the amount mentioned left :
I need to do some washing – I'm down to my last shirt.
down and out having no money, job or home
down under ( informal )
(in) Australia

under / "VndJ(r) ; AmE / preposition , adverb
  1 in or to a position that is below sth : We found him hiding under the table. The dog crawled under the gate and ran into the road.
Compare under , below , beneath and underneath . You use under to say that one thing is directly under another thing. There may be a space between the two things: The cat is asleep under the table or one thing may be touching or covered by the other thing: I think your letter is under that book. You can use below to say that one thing is in a lower position than another thing: They live on the floor below us. The skirt comes down to just below the knee. You use under (not below ) to talk about movement from one side of something to the other side: We swam under the bridge. You can use beneath in formal writing to say that one thing is directly under another thing, but under is more common. You can use underneath in place of under when you want to emphasize that something is being covered or hidden by another thing: Have you looked underneath the sofa as well as behind it?
below the surface of sth; covered by sth :
Most of an iceberg is under the water. He was wearing a vest under his shirt.
  3 less than a certain number; younger than a certain age : People working under 20 hours a week will pay no extra tax. Nobody under eighteen is allowed to buy alcohol.
  4 governed or controlled by sb/sth : The country is now under martial law.
  5 according to a law, agreement, system, etc. : Under English law you are innocent until you are proved guilty.
  6 experiencing a particular feeling, process or effect : He was jailed for driving under the influence of alcohol. a building under construction The manager is under pressure to resign. I was under the impression that Bill was not very happy there.
  7 using a particular name : to travel under a false name
  8 found in a particular part of a book, list, etc. : You'll find some information on rugby under ‘team sports’.

below / bI"lJU ; AmE / preposition , adverb
at or to a lower position or level than sb/sth :
Do not write below this line. The temperature fell below freezing during the night. Her marks in the exam were below average. I don't live on the top floor. I live on the floor below . temperatures of 30° and below note at under
Oxford Student's Dictionary of English © Oxford University Press, 2007

beneath / bI"ni:T ; AmE / preposition , adverb
  1 in, at or to a lower position than sb/sth; under : The ship disappeared beneath the waves. He seemed a nice person but there was a lot of anger beneath the surface. note at under
  2 not good enough for sb : She felt that cleaning for other people was beneath her.

about 1 / J"baUt ; AmE / adverb
  1 ( especially AmE around ) a little more or less than; approximately :
It's about three miles from here to the city centre. I got home at about half past seven.
  2 ( informal ) almost; nearly :
Dinner's just about ready.
  3 ( also around ) in many directions or places :
I could hear people moving about upstairs. Don't leave your clothes lying about all over the floor.
  4 ( also around ) (used after certain verbs) without doing anything in particular :
The kids spend most evenings sitting about , bored.
  5 ( also around ) present in a place; existing :
It was very late and there were few people about . There isn't much good music about these days.
be about to do sth to be going to do sth very soon :
The film's about to start. I was just about to explain when she interrupted me.

about 2 / J"baUt ; AmE / preposition
  1 on the subject of : Let's talk about something else. What's your book about ? He told me all about his family. I don't like it, but there's nothing I can do about it.
  2 ( also around ) in many directions or places; in different parts of sth :
We wandered about the town for an hour or two. Lots of old newspapers were scattered about the room.
  3 in the character of sb/sth : There's something about him that I don't quite trust. I like the food, the climate, and everything else about this country.
how/what about…?   1 (used when asking for information about sb/sth or for sb's opinion or wish) : How about Ruth? Have you heard from her lately? I'm going to have chicken. What about you?
  2 (used when making a suggestion) : What about going to a film tonight?

not / nQt ; AmE / adverb
  1 used to form the negative with the verbs be , do and have ( auxiliary verbs ) and with verbs such as can , must , will , etc. ( modal verbs ) . Not is often pronounced or written n't in informal situations : It's not /it isn't raining now. I cannot/can't see from here. He didn't invite me. Don't you like spaghetti? I hope she will not /won't be late. You're German, aren't you?
  2 used to give the following word or phrase a negative meaning : He told me not to telephone. She accused me of not telling the truth. Not one person replied to my advertisement. It's not easy. He's not very tall.
  3 used to give a short negative reply : ‘Do you think they'll get divorced?’ ‘I hope not .’ ( =I hope that they will not . ) ‘Can I borrow £20?’ ‘ Certainly not !’ ‘Whose turn is it to do the shopping?’ ‘Not mine.’
  4 used with the word or to give a negative possibility : Shall we tell her or not ?
not at all   1 used as a way of replying when sb has thanked you : ‘Thanks for the present.’ ‘Not at all, don't mention it.’
  2 used as a way of saying ‘no’ or ‘definitely not’ : ‘Do you mind if I come too?’ ‘Not at all.’ The instructions are not at all clear.
not only… (but) also used for emphasizing the fact that there is something more to add :
They not only have two houses in London, they also have one in France.

hit 1 / hIt ; AmE / verb [ transitive ] ( present participle hi tt ing ; past , past participle hit )
  1 to make sudden, violent contact with sb/sth : The bus left the road and hit a tree. to hit somebody in the eye/across the face/on the nose   Strike is a more formal word than hit . Beat means to hit many times: He was badly beaten in the attack.
  2 hit sth (on/against sth) to knock a part of your body, etc. against sth :
Peter hit his head on the low beam.
  3 to have a bad or unpleasant effect on sb/sth : Inner city areas have been badly hit by unemployment. Her father's death has hit her very hard.
  4 to experience sth unpleasant or difficult : Things were going really well until we hit this problem.
  5 to reach a place or a level : If you follow this road you should hit the motorway in about ten minutes. The price of oil hit a new high yesterday.
  6 to suddenly come into sb's mind; to make sb realize or understand sth : I thought I recognized the man's face and then it hit me – he was my old maths teacher!
hit it off (with sb) ( informal )
to like sb when you first meet them :
When I first met Tony's parents, we didn't really hit it off.
hit the nail on the head to say sth that is exactly right
hit the jackpot to win a lot of money or have a big success
hit the roof ( informal )
to become very angry
hit back (at sb/sth) to attack (with words) sb who has attacked you
hit on sth to suddenly find sth by chance :
I finally hit on a solution to the problem.
hit out (at sb/sth) to attack sb/sth :
The man hit out at the policeman.

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