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Friday, 24 May 2013

Auxiliary Verbs

be auxiliary verb being , was , were , been CONTINUE
1. [ + -ing verb ] used with the present participle of other verbs to describe actions that are or were still continuing
I'm still eat ing .
She's study ing to be a lawyer.
The audience clearly wasn't enjoy ing the show.
You're always complain ing .
I'll be com ing back (= I plan to come back) on Tuesday.
be auxiliary verb being , was , were , been PASSIVE
2. [ + past participle ] used with the past participle of other verbs to form the passive
I'd like to go but I haven't been ask ed .
Troublemakers are encourag ed to leave.
A body has been discover ed by the police.
do auxiliary verb did , done FOR QUESTIONS/NEGATIVES
1. used with another verb to form questions and negative sentences, including negative orders, and sometimes in affirmative sentences for reasons of style
Where do you work?
Why did you do that?
Why don't we have lunch together on Friday?
Doesn't Matthew look old these days?
"Didn't you realise she was deaf?" "No I didn't."/"Of course I did."
Not only did I speak to her, I even got her autograph!
formal Never did I hear such a terrible noise.
Don't (you) speak to me like that!
UK Don't let's argue about it (= Let's not argue about it) .
formal So quietly did she speak (= She spoke so quietly) that I could scarcely hear her.
Little does he know (= He knows nothing about it) , but we're flying to Geneva next weekend to celebrate his birthday.
"I want three cakes, two chocolate bars and an ice cream." "Do you now/indeed ? (= That is surprising or unreasonable) ."
do auxiliary verb did , done FOR QUESTIONS/NEGATIVES
2. used instead of the main verb in questions that are added to the end of a sentence to check information
You met him at our dinner party, didn't you?
You don't understand the question, do you?
do auxiliary verb did , done FOR QUESTIONS/NEGATIVES
3. used instead of the main verb in questions that are added to the end of a sentence as a way of expressing surprise
So Susannah and Guy finally got married, did they?
do auxiliary verb did , done TO AVOID REPEATING
4. used to avoid repeating a verb or verb phrase
She runs much faster than he does.
Maria looks much healthier than she did.
"I don't like intense heat." " Nor/Neither do I."
"I hate intense heat." " So do I."
"You left your umbrella." " So I did. I'm becoming so forgetful these days."
"Would you mind tidying up the kitchen?" mainly UK "I have done already./I already have done."
"May I join you?" "Please do!"
"Who said that?" "I did."
"Tilly speaks fluent Japanese." "Does she really?"
"I thought I'd take a day off school today." "Oh no you don't (= I'm not going to let you do that) !"
do auxiliary verb did , done FOR EMPHASIS
5. [ + infinitive without to ] used to give extra force to the main verb
Do shut up, Georgia, and get on with your homework.
Do write and let me know how you're getting on.
"Can I buy stamps here?" "Well, we do sell them, but we haven't got any at the moment."
He cooks a lot does Alex. He does far more than me.
have auxiliary verb [ + past participle ] had , had ( also 've/'s )
used with the past participle of other verbs to form the present and past perfect tenses
I've heard that story before.
Diane's already gone.
John hasn't phoned.
I haven't visited London before.
Have you seen Roz?
Has she been invited?
They still hadn't had any news when I spoke to them yesterday.
formal Had I known (= if I had known) you were coming, I'd have booked a larger room.
have auxiliary verb [ + past participle ] had , had ( also 've/'s )
used with the past participle of other verbs to form the present and past perfect tenses
I've heard that story before.
Diane's already gone.
John hasn't phoned.
I haven't visited London before.
Have you seen Roz?
Has she been invited?
They still hadn't had any news when I spoke to them yesterday.
formal Had I known (= if I had known) you were coming, I'd have booked a larger room.

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