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Friday, 24 May 2013

Conjunctions in detail

afore adverb , preposition , conjunction old use
before (EARLIER)
after conjunction
at a time which is later than another event
Three months after they moved out, the house was still empty.
Soon/shortly after we joined the motorway, the car started to make a strange noise.
I went to the post office straight/immediately after I left you.
albeit conjunction formal
although
The evening was very pleasant, albeit a little quiet.
He tried, albeit without success.
although conjunction
1. despite the fact that
She walked home by herself, although she knew that it was dangerous.
He decided to go, although I begged him not to.
although conjunction
2. but
He's rather shy, although he's not as bad as he used to be.
She'll be coming tonight, although I don't know exactly when.
and conjunction ALSO
1. used to join two words, phrases, parts of sentences or related statements together; also or in addition to
Ann and Jim
boys and girls
knives and forks
We were wet and tired.
We kissed and hugged each other.
Tidy up your room. And don't forget to make your bed!
and conjunction THEN
6. used to join two parts of a sentence, one part happening after the other part
I got dressed and had my breakfast.
and conjunction THEN
7. as a result
Bring the flowers into a warm room and they'll soon open.
Stand over there and you'll be able to see it better.
and conjunction THEN
8. with certain verbs, 'and' can mean 'in order to'
I asked him to go and find my glasses.
Come and see me tomorrow.
Wait and see (= wait in order to see) what happens.
informal Try and get (= Try to get) some tickets for tonight's performance.
and conjunction VERY
9. If 'and' is used to join two words which are the same, it makes their meaning stronger
She spends hours and hours (= a very long time) on the telephone.
The sound grew louder and louder (= very loud) .
We laughed and laughed (= laughed a lot) .
and conjunction BUT
10. used to express surprise
You're a vegetarian and you eat fish?
as conjunction BECAUSE
1. because
As it was getting late, I decided to book into a hotel.
You can go first as you're the oldest.
as conjunction WHILE
2. while; during the time that
I saw him as I was coming into the building.
He gets more attractive as he gets older.
as conjunction LIKE
3. in the same way
He got divorced, (just) as his parents had done years before.
This year, as in previous years, tickets sold very quickly.
As with his earlier movies, the special effects in his latest film are brilliant.
As is often the case with children, Amy was completely better by the time the doctor arrived.
As I was just saying, I think the proposal needs further consideration.
Knowing him as I do, I can't believe he would do such a thing.
as conjunction ALTHOUGH
4. although
Angry as he was, he couldn't help smiling.
because conjunction
for the reason that
"Why did you do it?" "Because Carlos told me to".
We can't go to Julia's party because we're going away that weekend.
Just because I'm lending you my dress for tonight doesn't mean you can borrow it whenever you want to.
informal Have you been away, because (= the reason I am asking is that) we haven't seen you recently?
before preposition , adverb , conjunction
1. at or during a time earlier than (the thing mentioned)
You should always wash your hands before meals.
Before leav ing he said goodbye to each of them.
She's always up before dawn.
Before he could reach the door, she quickly closed it.
Before we make a decision, does anyone want to say anything else?
She had to give the doorman a tip before (= in order that) he would help her with her suitcases.
before preposition , adverb , conjunction
2. until (the event mentioned)
It was an hour before the police arrived.
before preposition , adverb , conjunction
3. in the past
He said he had never seen her before.
I feel as though I've been here before.
but conjunction
used to introduce an added statement, usually something that is different from what you have said before
She's very hard-working but not very imaginative.
This is not caused by evil, but by simple ignorance.
The play's good, but not that good - I've seen better.
I'm sorry, but I think you're wrong when you say she did it deliberately.
Call me old-fashioned, but I like handwritten letters.
I can understand his unhappiness. But to attempt suicide!
"She said she's leaving." "But why?"
You can invite Keith to the party, but please don't ask that friend of his.
We must not complain about the problem, but (= instead we must) help to put it right.
She's not a painter but a writer (= She is a writer, not a painter) .
She's not only a painter but also a writer (= She is both) .
He said he hadn't been there, but then (= it is not surprising that) he would say that.
I think it's true, but then (= it should be understood that) , I'm no expert.
but preposition , conjunction
except
Eventually, all but one of them promised to come to his leaving party.
He's anything but violent (= not violent in any way) .
I'd have crashed the car but for your warning.
This is the last episode but one (= one before the last) of this drama serial.
She's one of those guests who does nothing but complain.
This car has been nothing but trouble - it's always breaking down!
cause conjunction informal
because
I'll host the party cause I've got plenty of room at my house.
I try to practise my French every day, cause I'm not very good at it.
considering preposition , conjunction , adverb
used to mention a particular condition or fact about something, usually a disadvantage
Considering the weather, we got here quite quickly.
She did well to find the way, considering she'd only been there once before.
cos conjunction ( also 'cos )
not standard for because
You can cook dinner tonight cos I did it last night.
directly conjunction
1. formal immediately after
Directly he was paid, he went out shopping.
directly conjunction
2. slightly formal as soon as
I'll be with you directly I've finished this letter.
either determiner , pronoun , conjunction
used when referring to a choice between two possibilities
Either candidate would be ideal for the job.
"Do you prefer pork or beef?" "I don't like either."
"Would you like the metal or plastic one?" "Either will do."
You can get there by train or bus - either way/in either case it'll take an hour.
We can either eat now or after the show - it's up to you.
Either you leave now or I call the police!
ere preposition , conjunction literary or old use
before
I shall be back ere nightfall.
except preposition , conjunction
not including; but not
The museum is open daily except Monday(s).
The government has few options except to keep interest rates high.
It's cool and quiet everywhere except in the kitchen.
Everyone was there except for Sally.
There is nothing to indicate the building's past, except (for) the fireplace.
They look very similar except that one is a little taller.
excepting preposition , conjunction formal
not including
All the people who were on the aircraft have now been identified, excepting one.
for conjunction old-fashioned or literary BECAUSE
because; as
She remained silent, for her heart was heavy and her spirits low.
granted conjunction
used to mean 'if you accept' something
Granted ( that ) the story's true, what are you going to do about it?
if conjunction IN THAT SITUATION
1. used to say that a particular thing can or will happen only after something else happens or becomes true
I'll pay you double if you get the work finished by Friday.
We'll have the party in the garden if the weather's good. If not (= If the weather is not good) , it'll have to be inside.
If anyone rings for me, please tell them I'll be back in the office at 4 o'clock.
If she hadn't called, I wouldn't have known.
I wouldn't work for them (even) if they paid me twice my current salary.
We'll deal with that problem if and when it arises.
If disturbed, the bird may abandon the nest, leaving the chicks to die.
if conjunction IN THAT SITUATION
2. although
She's a lovely woman, even if she can be a bit tiring at times.
literary It was a hot, if windy day.
if conjunction IN THAT SITUATION
3. every time
If water is heated to 100°C it turns to steam.
If I don't get enough sleep I get a headache.
if conjunction IN THAT SITUATION
4. used to mean 'if it is true that'
I'm very sorry if I've offended you.
if conjunction WHETHER
5. (used to introduce a clause, often in indirect speech ) whether
Mrs Kramer rang half an hour ago to ask if her cake was ready.
I don't care if he likes it or not - I'm coming!
I was wondering if you'd like to come to the cinema with me this evening?
if conjunction REQUEST
6. used when you want to make a polite request or remark
If you'd like to take a seat, Mr Chang will be with you in a moment.
Would you mind if I open/opened (= Can I open) the window?
There are, if you don't mind me saying so, one or two problems with this plan.
immediately conjunction UK
as soon as
Immediately she'd gone, the boys started to mess about
I'll call you immediately I hear anything.
lest conjunction literary
in order to prevent any possibility that something will happen
They were afraid to complain about the noise lest they annoyed the neighbours.
like preposition , conjunction SIMILAR TO
1. similar to; in the same way or manner as
He looks like his brother.
She's very much like her mother (= She is similar in appearance or character) .
Is Japanese food like Chinese?
I've got a sweater just like that.
Her hair was so soft it was like silk.
You're acting like a complete idiot!
She sings like an angel!
Like I said (= As I have already said) , I don't wear perfume.
Like most people (= As most people would) , I'd prefer to have enough money not to work
It feels/seems like (= It seems to me) ages since we last spoke.
There's nothing like a good cup of coffee (= it's better than anything) !
like preposition , conjunction AS IF
2. in a way that suggests
It looks like I'm going to be in the office until late tonight.
It looks like rain (= I think it is going to rain) .
It sounds to me like you ought to change jobs.
You look like you've just got out of bed!
not standard She acts like she's stupid!
'n' conjunction not standard
used in writing to mean 'and'
fish 'n' chips
rock 'n' roll
neither determiner , pronoun , conjunction , adverb
1. not either of two things or people
We've got two TVs, but neither works properly.
Neither of my parents likes my boyfriend.
Neither one of us is particularly interested in gardening.
"Which one would you choose?" "Neither. They're both terrible."
If she doesn't agree to the plan, neither will Tom (= Tom also will not) .
Chris wasn't at the meeting and neither was her assistant.
informal "I don't feel like going out this evening." "Me neither."
On two occasions she was accused of stealing money from the company, but in neither case was there any evidence to support the claims.
nor conjunction
1. used before the second or last of a set of negative possibilities, usually after 'neither'
We can neither change nor improve it.
Strangely, neither Carlo nor Juan saw what had happened.
nor conjunction
2. mainly UK neither
"I've never been to Iceland." "Nor have I."
I can't be at the meeting and nor can Andrew.
now conjunction
once conjunction
1. as soon as, or from the moment when
Once I've found somewhere to live I'll send you my address.
Remember that you won't be able to cancel the contract once you've signed.
only conjunction
used to show what is the single or main reason why something mentioned in the first part of the sentence cannot be performed or is not completely true
I'd invite Frances to the party, only (= but I will not because) I don't want her husband to come.
I'd phone him myself, only (= but I cannot because) I've got to go out.
I'd be happy to do it for you, only (= but) don't expect it to be done before next week.
This fabric is similar to wool, only (= except that it is) cheaper.
or conjunction POSSIBILITIES
1. used to connect different possibilities
Is it Tuesday or Wednesday today?
You can pay now or when you come back to pick up the paint.
Are you listening to me or not ?
The patent was granted in (either) 1962 or 1963 - I can't quite remember which.
It doesn't matter whether you win or lose - it's taking part that's important.
There were ten or twelve (= approximately that number of) people in the room.
He was only joking - or was he (= but it is possible that he was not) ?
or conjunction POSSIBILITIES
2. used after a negative verb to mean not one thing and also not another
The child never smiles or laughs.
or conjunction IF NOT
3. if not
You should eat more, or you'll make yourself ill.
or conjunction EXPLAIN
4. used to show that a word or phrase means the same as, or explains or limits or corrects, another word or phrase
Rosalind, or Roz to her friends, took the initiative.
Things have been going quite well recently. Or they were, up until two days ago.
otherwise conjunction
used after an order or suggestion to show what the result will be if you do not follow that order or suggestion
I'd better write it down, otherwise I'll forget it.
Phone home, otherwise your parents will start to worry.
plus preposition , conjunction
and also
There will be two adults travelling, plus three children.
informal Let's not go on holiday in August - it'll be too hot - plus it'll be more expensive.
pro ˈ vided (that) conjunction ( also providing (that) )
if, or only if
He's welcome to come along, provided that he behaves himself.
ˈ seeing (that) conjunction ( informal seeing as , not standard seeing as how )
considering or accepting the fact that; as
We may as well go to the concert, seeing as we've already paid for the tickets.
since conjunction BECAUSE
1. because; as
Since we've got a few minutes to wait for the train, let's have a cup of coffee.
since conjunction TIME
2. from a particular time in the past until a later time, or until now
I've been very busy since I came back from holiday.
so conjunction SENTENCE BEGINNING
1. used at the beginning of a sentence to connect it with something that has been said or has happened previously
So, there I was standing at the edge of the road with only my underwear on ...
So, just to finish what I was saying earlier...
so conjunction SENTENCE BEGINNING
2. used as a way of making certain that you or someone else understand something correctly, often when you are repeating the important points of a plan
So we leave on the Thursday and get back the next Tuesday, is that right?
so conjunction SENTENCE BEGINNING
3. used to refer to a discovery that you have just made
So that's what he does when I'm not around!
so conjunction SENTENCE BEGINNING
4. used as a short pause, sometimes to emphasize what you are saying
So, here we are again - just you and me.
so conjunction SENTENCE BEGINNING
5. used before you introduce a subject of conversation that is of present interest, especially when you are asking a question
So, who do you think is going to win the election?
so conjunction SENTENCE BEGINNING
6. informal used to show that you agree with something that someone has just said, but you do not think that it is important
So the car's expensive - well, I can afford it.
so conjunction THEREFORE
7. and for that reason; therefore
My knee started hurting so I stopped running.
I was lost so I bought a street map.
so conjunction , adverb
1. used before you give an explanation for the action that you have just mentioned
[ + ( that ) ] I deliberately didn't have lunch so (that) I would be hungry tonight.
Leave the keys out so (that) I remember to take them with me.
suppose conjunction ( also supposing )
used at the beginning of a sentence or clause to mean 'what would happen if'
Suppose we miss the train - what will we do then?
We'd love to come and see you on Saturday, supposing (= if) I don't have to work that day.
than preposition , conjunction
1. used to join two parts of a comparison
My son is a lot taller than my daughter.
You always walk faster than I do!
You're earlier than usual.
than preposition , conjunction
2. used with 'more' or 'less' to compare numbers or amounts
I spent more than I intended to.
It cost less than I expected.
that conjunction
used to introduce a clause which reports something or gives further information, although it can often be left out
She said (that) she'd collect it for me after work.
Is it true (that) she's gone back to teaching?
We'll be there at about 7.30, provided/providing (that) there's a suitable train.
It was so dark (that) I couldn't see anything.
though conjunction
1. despite the fact that
She hasn't phoned, even though she said she would.
though conjunction
2. but
They're coming next week, though I don't know which day.
till preposition , conjunction
up to (the time that); until
We waited till half past six for you.
Up till 1918, women in Britain were not allowed to vote.
How long is it till your baby is due?
unless conjunction
except if
You can't get a job unless you've got experience (= you can only get a job if you have experience) .
Unless you call me to say you're not coming, I'll see you at the theatre (= I will see you there if you do not call to say you are not coming) .
until preposition , conjunction ( also till ) TIME
1. up to (the time that)
I was up until three o'clock trying to get it finished!
Hadn't we better wait until Antony's here?
until preposition , conjunction ( also till ) DISTANCE
3. as far as
You should stay on the train until Manchester and then change.
when adverb , conjunction
at what time; at the time at which
"I did tell you about it." "When? I don't remember."
When are you going?
When's the baby due?
We'll go when you're ready.
Tell me when to start.
Ask him when he's next coming home.
When do you expect to have the project completed (by) ?
She was only twenty when she had her first baby.
He was quite shocked when I told him.
I hate it when there's no one in the office.
I went there when I was a child.
I was just getting into the bath when the telephone rang.
when conjunction CONSIDERING THAT
1. considering the fact that
How can you say you don't like something when you've never even tried it!
You can't complain of being lonely when you don't make any effort to meet people.
Why is she training to be a teacher when she doesn't even like children?
I don't suppose I can really call myself a vegetarian when I eat fish.
when conjunction ALTHOUGH
2. despite the fact that
He says he hasn't got any money when in fact he's got thousands of dollars in his account.
I don't understand how he can say that everything's fine when it's so obvious that it's not.
whence adverb , conjunction formal
(from) where
It has been returned to the shop from whence it came.
whenever adverb , conjunction
every or any time
I blush whenever I think about it.
Whenever I go there they seem to be in bed.
I try to use olive oil whenever possible.
"Will it be okay if I do it tomorrow?" "Sure, whenever (= then or at any other time) ."
Do it in a spare moment at the weekend or whenever - it really doesn't matter.
I'm talking about last July or whenever it was you got back from India.
where adverb , conjunction
1. to, at or in what place
Where does he live?
"I put it on your desk." "Where? I can't see it?"
Where are we going?
Now where did I put my glasses?
Where's the party being held?
Could you tell me where Barker Drive is please?
Where did you put my umbrella?
I've left my keys somewhere and I don't know where.
You've found my diary - where on Earth was it?
I've been meaning to ask you where you get your hair cut.
Bradford, where Bren comes from, has a lot of good curry restaurants.
She lived in Rome for a couple of years, where she taught English.
You see where Mira is standing? Well, he's behind her.
I like to have him next to me where I can keep an eye on him.
I read it somewhere - I don't know where (= in which book, newspaper, etc.) .
where adverb , conjunction
2. used when referring to a particular stage in a process or activity
You reach a point in any project where you just want to get the thing finished.
I've reached the stage where I just don't care any more.
where adverb , conjunction
3. in what situation
You're not available on the 12th and Andrew can't make the 20th - so where does that leave us?
Where do you see yourself five years from now?
whereas conjunction
compared with the fact that; but
He must be about sixty, whereas his wife looks about thirty.
You eat a massive plate of food for lunch, whereas I have just a sandwich.
whereby adverb , conjunction
1. by which way or method
They've set up a plan whereby you can spread the cost over a period.
We need to devise some sort of system whereby people can liaise with each other.
whereby adverb , conjunction
2. not standard in which, or with which
It's put me in a position whereby I can't afford to take a job.
wherein adverb , conjunction old use or formal
in which, or in which part
He gazed once more around the room, wherein were assembled his entire family.
He was certainly a pleasant man but wherein lay his charms, she wondered.
wheresoever adverb , conjunction
formal for wherever (EVERY PLACE)
whereupon conjunction
immediately after which
I told her she looked fat, whereupon she threw the entire contents of a saucepan at me and burst into tears.
wherever adverb , conjunction
1. to or in any or every place
We can go wherever you like.
Wherever I go I always seem to bump into him.
All across Europe, wherever you look, marriage is in decline and divorce rates are soaring.
Wherever you choose to live there are always going to be disadvantages.
He lives, apparently, in Little Overington, wherever that is.
wherever adverb , conjunction
2. in every case
Wherever possible I use honey instead of sugar.
whether conjunction
1. (used especially in reporting questions and expressing doubts) if, or not
I wasn't sure whether you'd like it.
She asked me whether I was interested in working for her.
I'm wondering whether to have the fish or the beef.
I doubt whether it'll work.
I was merely questioning whether we have the money to fund such a project.
It all depends on whether or not she's got the time.
Anyway, it's a good story, whether or not it's true.
while conjunction DURING
1. ( mainly UK formal whilst ) during the time that, or at the same time as
I read it while you were drying your hair.
While I was in Italy I went to see Alessandro.
I thought I heard him come in while we were having dinner.
"I'm going to the post office." "While you're there can you get me some stamps?"
while conjunction ALTHOUGH
2. ( mainly UK formal whilst ) despite the fact that; although
While I accept that he's not perfect in many respects, I do actually quite like the man.
While I fully understand your point of view, I do also have some sympathy with Michael's.
while conjunction BUT
3. compared with the fact that; but
He gets fifty thousand pounds a year while I get a meagre twenty!
Tom is very extrovert and confident while Katy's shy and quiet.
I do every single bit of housework while he just does the dishes now and again.
yet adverb , conjunction
(and) despite that; used to add something that seems surprising because of what you have just said
simple yet effective
He's overweight and bald, (and) yet somehow, he's attractive.
as ˈ suming (that) conjunction
accepting as true without question or proof
Even assuming that smokers do see the health warnings, I doubt they'll take any notice.
inasmuch as conjunction formal
used to introduce a phrase which explains why or how much something described in another part of the sentence is true
Inasmuch as you are their commanding officer, you are responsible for the behaviour of these men.
insofar as conjunction formal
to the degree that
cos conjunction ( also 'cos )
not standard for because
You can cook dinner tonight cos I did it last night.
suppose conjunction ( also supposing )
used at the beginning of a sentence or clause to mean 'what would happen if'
Suppose we miss the train - what will we do then?
We'd love to come and see you on Saturday, supposing (= if) I don't have to work that day.
until preposition , conjunction ( also till ) TIME
1. up to (the time that)
I was up until three o'clock trying to get it finished!
Hadn't we better wait until Antony's here?
until preposition , conjunction ( also till ) DISTANCE
3. as far as
You should stay on the train until Manchester and then change.
while conjunction DURING
1. ( mainly UK formal whilst ) during the time that, or at the same time as
I read it while you were drying your hair.
While I was in Italy I went to see Alessandro.
I thought I heard him come in while we were having dinner.
"I'm going to the post office." "While you're there can you get me some stamps?"
while conjunction ALTHOUGH
2. ( mainly UK formal whilst ) despite the fact that; although
While I accept that he's not perfect in many respects, I do actually quite like the man.
While I fully understand your point of view, I do also have some sympathy with Michael's.
pro ˈ vided (that) conjunction ( also providing (that) )
if, or only if
He's welcome to come along, provided that he behaves himself.
ˈ seeing (that) conjunction ( informal seeing as , not standard seeing as how )
considering or accepting the fact that; as
We may as well go to the concert, seeing as we've already paid for the tickets.
ˈ seeing (that) conjunction ( informal seeing as , not standard seeing as how )
considering or accepting the fact that; as
We may as well go to the concert, seeing as we've already paid for the tickets.

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