Monday, 27 May 2013

IELTS 4000 Academic Word List (1)

abandon: lacking restraint or control; feeling of extreme emotional intensity; unbounded enthusiasm

abandonment: giving up completely; freedom from constraint

abbreviation: shortening something by omitting parts of it

abeyance: suspended action; temporary cessation or suspension

abide: endure; put up with; bear; tolerate

ability: capacity; skill

abnormal: unusual; not typical; not normal

aboard: on a ship, train, plane or other vehicle; in or into a group, organization, or business

abolish: cancel; put an end to; destroy completely

abolition: ending; act of abolishing; act of doing away with

abortion: termination of pregnancy; failure of a plan

abortive: unsuccessful; failing to accomplish an intended objective; fruitless

abridge: condense; shorten; reduce length of written text

abrogate: abolish, do away with, or annul, especially by authority

abrupt: broken off; very steep; having sudden transitions from one subject to another

absence: state of being absent; state of being away

absent: go away or leave ; missing; not present

absolute: perfect in quality or nature; complete; totally unlimited; certain

absolutely: utterly; definitely

absorb: assimilate or incorporate; suck or drink up; occupy full attention

absorption: process of absorbing nutrients into the body after digestion; state of mental concentration

abstract: theoretical; not concrete; not applied or practical; difficult to understand

absurd: preposterous; ridiculously incongruous or unreasonable; foolish

absurdity: quality of being absurd or inconsistent with obvious truth, reason, or sound judgment; logical contradiction

abundance: great or plentiful amount; fullness to overflowing

abundant: plentiful; possessing riches or resources

abuse: improper use or handling; misuse

academic: related to school; not practical or directly useful; relating to scholarly organization; based on formal education

academy: school for special instruction; society of scholars, scientists, or artists

accede: agree; give consent, often at insistence of another; concede

accelerate: move faster; cause to develop or progress more quickly; occur sooner than expected

acceleration: faster rate of improvement; rate of change of velocity with respect to time

access: approach; entry; entrance

accessible: easily approached or entered; obtainable; easy to talk to or get along with

accessory: additional object; useful but not essential thing; subordinate or supplementary item

accident: event that takes place without one's foresight or expectation; sudden, and unexpected event

accidental: unexpected; unforeseen

accidentally: inadvertently; by chance; casually; fortuitously; not essentially or intrinsically

accommodate: do a favor or service for; provide for; supply with; make suitable; adapt; allow for

accommodation: living quarters provided for public convenience

accompaniment: act of accompanying someone or something

accompany: travel with; be associated with

accomplish: succeed in doing; bring to pass; achieve; reach the end of; complete

accomplishment: achievement; fulfillment

accord: settlement or compromise of conflicting opinions; written agreement between two states

account: narrative or record of events; reason given for a particular action or event

accountant: one who maintains and audits business accounts

accounting: system that provides quantitative information about finances

accrue: increase, accumulate, or come about as a result of growth; accumulate over time

accumulate: pile up; collect; mount up; increase

accumulation: increase by natural growth or addition; concentration

accuracy: quality of nearness to the truth or the true value

accurate: capable of providing a correct reading or measurement; performing with care and precision

accusation: indictment; charge of wrongdoing that is made against a person or other party

accuse: blame; condemn

achieve: gain with effort; accomplish; fulfill

achievement: feat; accomplishment; award for completing a particular task or meeting an objective

acid: sour; water-soluble compounds having a sour taste; quality of being sarcastic, bitter, or scornful

acknowledge: declare to be true or admit; express obligation, thanks

acquaint: inform about; cause to come to know personally; make familiar

acquaintance: personal knowledge or information about someone or something

acquainted: known by or familiar with another; informed or familiar

acquire: gain through experience or effort; gain possession of; locate with tracking system

acquisition: act of contracting or assuming or acquiring possession of something

across: from side to side; crosswise, or in a direction opposed to the length

activate: make active or more active; stimulate; make radioactive

actively: energetically; vigorously; in an active manner; voluntarily, not passively

actual: true; real; being, existing, or acting at the present moment; current

actually: truly; really; in fact

acute: quickly perceptive; keen; having a sharp point or tip; extremely sharp or severe

adapt: make fit for; change to suit a new purpose

adaptation: modification; alteration or adjustment in structure or habits

additional: further; extra; supplemental or added to

additive: addition; supplement

address: make a formal speech to; deal with or discuss; direct efforts or attention of

adequate: sufficient; enough to meet a purpose

adhere: stick fast; stick to firmly; be compatible or in accordance with

adhesive: glue; paste ; substance that unites or bonds surfaces together

adjacent: adjoining; neighboring; close to; lying near

adjoin: be next to; be contiguous to; border on

adjust: adapt; regulate

adjustment: making or becoming suitable; adjusting to circumstances

administer: govern; supervise; give or apply medications

administration: management; supervision; people who are in charge for management; activity of government for powers and duties

administrative: of or relating to or responsible for administration

admiration: favorable judgment; feeling of pleasure, wonder, and approval

admire: regard with wonder or astonishment; view with surprise; marvel at

admission: act or practice of admitting; power or permission to enter

admit: permit to enter; receive; provide the right or a means of entrance to

admittedly: doubtlessly; in an acknowledged manner; confessedly

adolescence: state of growing up from childhood to manhood or womanhood; transitional period between youth and maturity

adolescent: a juvenile between the onset of puberty and maturity;

adopt: accept; take on; raise; take into one's family

adoption: act of accepting with approval

adore: worship with profound reverence; pay divine honors to; regard with the utmost esteem and affection

adorn: enhance or decorate with or as if with ornaments

adornment: embellishment; decoration; something that beautifies or adorns; ornament

adult: one who has attained maturity or legal age; fully grown

advance: proceed; move forward; improve; moving forward

advanced: improved; highly developed or complex; ahead of the times; progressive

adventure: something happens without design; chance; hazard; risk; danger

adventurous: valiant; venturesome; inclined or willing to incur hazard or engage in adventures

adversary: opponent in contest; someone who offers opposition

adverse: in opposing direction; harmful or unfavorable; acting or serving to oppose

adversity: state of misfortune, hardship, or affliction; misfortune

advertise: give notice to; inform or apprise; make known; give public notice of

advisable: proper to be advised or to be done; expedient; prudent; ready to receive advice

advocate: speak, plead, or argue in favour of; plead for; push for something

aerial: of the air or atmosphere; produced by or found in the air; performed in the air

affect: have an emotional or cognitive impact upon

affection: fondness; tender feeling toward another; fondness

affectionate: having affection or warm regard; loving; fond; kindly inclined; zealous

affiliate: associate; incorporate

affirm: assert; confirm

affirmation: positive assertion; confirmation; solemn pledge by one who refuses to take an oath

affirmative: confirmative; ratifying; giving assent or approval; confirming

afford: pay; provide; have the financial means for; bear the cost of

affordable: able to pay for

agency: a business that serves other businesses; an administrative unit of government

agent: one that acts on behalf of other persons or organizations

aggravate: worsen; make worse or more troublesome

aggregate: gather into a mass, sum, or whole; amount to

aggregation: several things grouped together or considered as a whole

aggressive: making assaults; unjustly attacking; combative; hostile; tending to spread quickly

aggressor: one that engages in aggression; person who first attacks

agitate: cause to move with violence or sudden force; upset; disturb

agitation: anxiety; extreme emotional disturbance

agony: extreme pain of mind or body; anguish; last struggle of life; death struggle

agreeable: ready to consent or submit; acceptable

agreement: state of agreeing; harmony of opinion, statement, action, or character

agriculture: practice of cultivating the land or raising stock

aid: person or thing that promotes or helps in something done; helper; assistant

ailment: sickness; illness; affliction

aim: point or direct towards an object or spot with the intent of hitting it

air: be broadcast on television or radio

aircraft: vehicle that can fly, such as an airplane, helicopter, balloon

aisle: passageway between rows of seats, as in an auditorium or an airplane; wing of a building

ajar: half-open; slightly turned or opened

alarm: any sound or information intended to give notice of approaching danger

album: a list of names; a register for visitors; a blank book, in which to insert autographs sketches, memorial writing of friends, photographs

alert: warning serves; alarm; condition of heightened watchfulness or preparation for action

alien: dissimilar, inconsistent, or opposed in nature; very different place, society, or person

alienate: cause to become unfriendly or hostile; transfer property or ownership; isolate or dissociate emotionally

alignment: arrangement; association; alliance

alike: similar; in the same manner or to the same degree

allergic: excessively sensitive; susceptible; having an allergy

allergy: hyper sensitivity reaction; abnormally high sensitivity to certain substances

alliance: state of being allied; act of allying or uniting; a union or connection of interests between families, states, parties

allocate: assign; distribute according to plan

allot: parcel out in parts or portions; distribute to each individual concerned; assign as a share or lot

allowance: approval; act of allowing, granting, or admitting

alloy: combine; mix; make less pure; lessen or moderate

ally: confederate; partner; collaborator

alone: solitary; by oneself

along: by the length; in a line with the length; onward; forward; in company; together

alongside: along or by the side; side by side with

alter: modify; cause to change; make different; convert

alternate: happening or following in turns; succeeding each other continuously; substitute

alternation: successive change from one thing or state to another and back again

alternative: one of two or more things, ideas or courses of action that may be used; option; choice

altitude: elevation especially above sea level; height

aluminum: silvery ductile metallic element

amateur: nonprofessional; lacking the skill of a professional, as in an art

amaze: astonish; affect with wonder

amazement: wonder; state of extreme surprise or wonder; astonishment

ambassador: authorized messenger or representative

ambiguity: state of being ambiguous; doubtfulness or uncertainty

ambiguous: unclear or doubtful in meaning

ambition: aspiration

ambitious: aspiring; having a strong desire for success or achievement

ambulance: field hospital organized as to follow an army in its movements; wagon for conveying the wounded to hospital

amend: change for the better; improve; remove faults or errors

amendment: correction; revision

amends: compensation for a loss or injury; recompense; reparation

amiable: good-natured and likable; lovable; warmly friendly

amicable: exhibiting friendliness or goodwill; not quarrelsome

amid: in the middle of; among; surrounded by

ammunition: military stores or provisions; articles used in weapons, as powder, balls, shot, shells

amount: total of two or more quantities; aggregate; sum

ample: more than enough in size or scope or capacity; fairly large

amplification: addition of extra material or illustration or clarifying detail

amplify: broaden or clarify by expanding; intensify; make larger or more powerful; increase

amuse: occupy or engage the attention of; lose in deep thought

analogy: similarity in some respects; comparison based on similarity

analysis: study; investigation; process of breaking down a substance into its constituent parts

analytical: of analysis; resolving into elements or parts

analyze: diagnose; examine

ancestor: forefather; forebear; forerunner or predecessor

anchor: secure or fasten firmly; be fixed in place; narrate or coordinate

anecdote: short account of amusing or interesting event; short narrative; secret story of history or biography

angular: sharp-cornered; consisting of an angle or angles; stiff in manner

animate: endowed with life; alive; living; animated

animation: act of animating, or giving life or spirit; state of being animate or alive.

ankle: joint which connects the foot with the leg; tarsus

annex: append or attach; take possession of; incorporate into an existing political unit

anniversary: annual; yearly; annual return of the day on which any notable event took place

announce: herald; give out; proclaim; make known publicly

announcement: formal public statement; act of making known publicly

announcer: one who proclaims a message publicly

annoy: disturb, especially by minor irritations; irritate

annual: occurring or payable every year

annually: yearly; each year; returning every year; year by year

antagonism: active resistance; condition of being an opposing principle, force, or factor

antagonist: one who contends with another, especially in combat; an adversary; opponent

antarctic: opposite to the northern or arctic pole; relating to the southern pole or to the region near it

antibiotic:  of or relating to chemical substance that kills microorganisms and cures infections

anticipate:  act in advance of; deal with ahead of time; predict

anticipation: something expected; pleasurable expectation; wishing with confidence

antique: any furniture old and valuable; out of fashion

antonym: word of opposite meaning; counter term

anxiety: concern something in state of painful uneasiness; state of restlessness and agitation

anxious: eager; keen; worried; uneasy and apprehensive about an uncertain event or matter

anyhow: in any way or manner whatever; at any rate; in any event

apart: separately, in regard to space or company; in a state of separation as to place; aside

ape: imitate; mimic, as an ape imitates human actions

apologize: beg pardon

apology: acknowledgment expressing regret or asking pardon for a fault or offense; explanation or excuse

apparatus: a group of parts that work together to perform given function; appliance or device for particular purpose

apparent: capable of being seen, or easily seen; open to view; visible to eye

appeal: attraction; charm; attract; fascinate; challenge

appealing: attractive; charming

appendix: something appended or added

appetite: instinctive physical desire, especially one for food or drink

applaud: acclaim; express approval, especially by clapping the hands

appliance: durable goods for home or office use; device or instrument for household use

applicable: capable of being applied; fit or suitable to be applied; having relevance

applicant: candidate

application: close attention; work of applying something; verbal or written request for assistance

apply: exert; put into service; avail oneself to;

appoint: designate; nominate

appointment: act of putting a person into a non-elective position; arrangement

appreciable: considerable; perceptible

appreciate: be thankful for; increase in worth; be thoroughly conscious of

appreciation: recognition; taste; judgment or opinion, especially a favorable one

appreciative: having or showing a just or ready appreciation or perception

apprentice: works for an expert to learn a trade; beginner; learner

approach: access; method

appropriate: acquire; take possession of for one's own use; set apart for specific use

approval: official approbation; endorsement; act of approving

approve: ratify; consider right or good; think or speak favorably of

approximate: approach; come near

approximately: about; roughly

apt: likely; exactly suitable; appropriate; quick to learn or understand

aptitude: inherent ability; quickness in learning and understanding

arbitrary: randomly chosen; determined by chance or impulse, and not by reason or principle

arbitrator: someone chosen to judge and decide disputed issue; one having ability or power to make authoritative decisions

arc: continuous portion of a circle; something curved in shape

arch: any part of a curved line

archaeology: study of artifacts and relics of early mankind

architect: one who designs and supervises the construction of buildings or other large structures

architecture: art and science of designing and erecting buildings; buildings and other large structures

ardent: displaying or by strong enthusiasm or devotion; passionate

arduous: demanding great effort or labor; difficult

area: plane surface, as of the floor of a room; open space in a building; the enclosed space; extent; scope; range

arena: playing field where sports events take place; large structure for open-air sports or entertainments

argue: invent and offer reasons to support or overthrow a proposition, opinion, or measure; debate

arise: come up from a lower to a higher position; come above the horizon; spring up; come into action

aristocracy: hereditary nobility; privileged class

aristocrat: one of the aristocracy or people of rank in a community; one of a ruling class; a noble

arithmetic: theory of numerical calculations

armour: defensive covering, as of metal, wood, or leather, worn to protect the body against weapons

arms: weapons considered collectively; official symbols of a family

arouse: excite; stimulate; awaken from or as if from sleep

arrange: put in proper order; dispose in the manner intended, or best suited for the purpose

arrangement: composition; order

array: set out for display or use; place in orderly arrangement

arrest: stop or slow down; catch someone's attention; take into custody

arrogance: overbearing pride; haughtiness; manifest feeling of personal superiority in rank, power, or estimation

arrogant: arising from feeling or assumption of one's superiority toward others

article: essay; editorial; individual thing or element of a class

artificial: made by humans; produced rather than natural.

ascend: climb; mount

ascertain: find out for certain; discover with certainty; make sure of

ascribe: inscribe or dedicate; attribute to a specified cause, source, or origin; assign as a quality

ashamed: affected by shame; abashed or confused by guilt

aside: on, or to, one side; out of a straight line, course, or direction; at a little distance from the rest

aspect: distinct feature or element in a problem; a way in which something can be viewed by the mind

aspirin: white crystalline compound drug to relieve pain and reduce fever and inflammation

assassination: act of assassinating; killing by treacherous violence; murder of public figure by surprise attack

assault: attack; onslaught

assemble: put together; bring or call together into a group or whole

assembly: gathering; meeting; a group of persons gathered together for common reason

assert: declare or state with confidence; put oneself forward boldly

assess:  estimate value; judge worth of something

assessment: act of judging or assessing; amount determined as payable

assign: appoint; allot; make over; point out authoritatively or exactly

assignment: task given to students; job; distribution; appointment

assist: give help or support to, especially as a subordinate

assistance: activity of contributing to fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose

assistant: helper; person who assists or helps someone else

associate: connect or join together; combine

association: connection, whether of persons of things; union of persons in a company or society for some particular purpose

assorted: varied; miscellaneous

assortment: variety; collection containing a variety of sorts of things

assume: suppose; presume; take on; bear

assumption: something taken for accepted as true without proof; taking over or taking possession of

assurance: promise or pledge; certainty; self-confidence; freedom from doubt

assure: solidify; guarantee; convince

assured: made sure; exhibiting confidence or authority; indubitable

astonish: surprise; shock

astound: affect with wonder; surprise; shock

astray: away from the correct path or direction, either in a literal or in a figurative sense; wandering

astronomer: a physicist who studies astronomy

astronomical: enormously large or extensive; relating to astronomy

astronomy: branch of physics that studies celestial bodies and universe as a whole

athlete: sports man; one who contended for prize in public games

atlas: a bound volume of maps, charts, or tables

atmosphere: air

atom: a tiny piece of anything; the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element

atomic: of or relating to or comprising atoms; immeasurably small

attach: fasten; annex; be in contact with

attachment: a bond, as of affection or loyalty; fond regard; supplementary part; accessory

attack: offensive move; expression of strong criticism; hostile comment

attain: achieve or accomplish; gain

attempt: action of trying at something

attend: be present at; go to; take care of; tend

attendance: act of being present

attendant: aide; servant; accompanying; person who participates in a meeting

attention: act or state of attending or heeding; application of the mind to any object of sense, representation, or thought

attentive: alert and watchful; considerate; thoughtful

attic: story or room directly below the roof of a building, especially a house;

attitude: posture, action, or disposition of a figure or a statue

attorney: lawyer; one who is appointed by another to act in his place or stead; proxy

attract: draw to, or cause to tend to; engage or fix, as the mind, attention; invite or allure

attraction: appeal; a characteristic that provides pleasure and attracts

attribute: essential quality; reputation; honor

auction: public sale of property to the highest bidder

audience: a group of people within hearing; crowd seeing a stage performance

auditorium: area of theater or concert hall where audience sits

august: impressive; majestic; inspiring awe or admiration

author: beginner, former, or first mover of anything; creator; originator; one who composes or writes book or composer

authority: jurisdiction; power to enforce laws, exact obedience, command, determine, or judge; government

authorization: act of giving authority or legal power; establishment by authority; sanction or warrant

authorize: empower; give permission for; sanction

autobiography: biography or story written by yourself

automate: control or operate by automation; replace or enhance human labor with machines

automatic: mechanized; operating with minimal human intervention; independent of external control

automation: act or process of converting the controlling of a machine or device to a more automatic system, such as computer or electronic controls

automobile: self-propelled vehicle suitable for use on street or roadway

autonomous: self-governing; not controlled by others or by outside forces; independent

autonomy: independence; self-government or the right of self-government; self-determination

auxiliary: helper, additional or subsidiary

avail: turn to advantage of; be of service to; profit; promote

available: convenient for use or disposal; not busy, free; obtainable; accessible

avenge: take vengeance for something, or on behalf of someone

avenue: way or opening for entrance or exit place; passage by which a place may be reached; broad street

average: typical; mean; achieve or reach on average

aviation: art or science of flying; flight; aeronautics

avoid: shield away from; prevent

aware: knowing; having knowledge or cognizance

awe: mixed emotion of reverence, respect, dread, and wonder; fear, as of something evil

awful: causing fear, dread, or terror; extremely bad or unpleasant; terrible

awkward: difficult to handle or manage

awkwardly: in an uncomfortable, nervous or embarrassed way

axis: the center around which something rotates; pivot

axle: pin or spindle on which a wheel revolves, or which revolves with a wheel; transverse bar or shaft connecting the opposite wheels of a car or carriage

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