Monday, 27 May 2013

IELTS 4000 Academic Word List (2)

baby-sitter: person engaged to care for children when the parents are not home

bachelor: unmarried men; the first or lowest academic degree conferred by universities and colleges

backbone: support; mainstay; vertebrate spine or spinal column

backward: directed to the back or rear; unwilling; averse; reluctant; hesitating; undeveloped

bacon: back and sides of a pig salted and smoked

bacterium: single celled organism with no nucleus

badge: distinctive mark, token, or sign worn on the person

badminton: game played on a court with light long-handled rackets

baffle: frustrate as by confusing or perplexing; impede force or movement of

baggage: trunks, bags, parcels, and suitcases in which one carries one's belongings while traveling; luggage

bait: harass; tease; lure, entice, or entrap

bake: prepare, as food, by cooking in a dry heat, either in an oven or under coals, or on heated stone or metal

balance: being in equilibrium; equilibrium; symmetry; stability

balcony: platform projecting from the wall of a building

bald: hairless; lacking a natural or usual covering

ballet: a sort of theatrical representation by dancers

balloon: large non-rigid bag filled with gas or heated air

ballroom: large room used mainly for dancing

bamboo: plant of family of grasses, growing in tropical countries

band: orchestra; team; strip; ribbon; belt; unite; ally

bandage: strip of woven material, used in dressing and binding up wounds

bang: a vigorous blow; a conspicuous success

banker: person in charge of the bank in a gambling game; one who owns or is an executive in a bank

bankrupt: penniless, without any money; financially ruined

banner: flag; sign; a newspaper headline that runs across the full page

banquet: feast; entertainment of eating and drinking

bar: a counter where you can obtain food or drink; cafe; strip; stick

barber: haircutter; one whose business is to cut hair and to shave or trim beards

bare: lacking the usual or appropriate covering or clothing

barely: just; only; hardly; scarcely

bargain: agreement between parties concerning the sale of property

barge: flatboat; long, large boat for transporting freight that is unpowered and towed or pushed by other craft

bark: sound made by a dog; harsh sound uttered by a dog

barn: an outlying farm building for storing grain or animal feed and housing farm animals

barometer: instrument for determining the weight or pressure of the atmosphere

baron: title or degree of nobility

barrel: vessel; large cylindrical container

barren: desolate; fruitless and unproductive; lacking

barrier: obstacle; structure built to bar passage; boundary or limit

barter: trade goods or services without the exchange of money

baseball: game played with a bat and ball by two opposing teams of nine players; ball used in this game

basement: cellar; storage room

basin: bowl-shaped vessel, usually used for holding food or liquids

bathe: wash by immersion, as in a bath; subject to bath; lave; immerse or cover one's self

batter: beat with successive blows; beat repeatedly and with violence

battery: beating or pounding; set of guns or heavy artillery; dry cell that produces electric current

bay: inlet of the sea, usually smaller than a gulf; small body of water set off from the main body

bazaar: market consisting of a street lined with shops and stalls, especially one in the Middle East

bead: small piece of material, such as glass, plastic, or wood, that is pierced for stringing

beak: nib ;horny projecting mouth of a bird

beam: ray of light; long piece of metal or wood; long piece fixed or movable in structure, machine, or tool

bean: various edible seeds; small oval or roundish seed, berry, nut, or lump

bear: support; sustain; carry; have; yield; give birth; hold up or support

bearing: carrying another part; patient endurance; suffering without complaint; act of producing or giving birth

beat: whip; strike; defeat; hit repeatedly

become: suit or be suitable to; be worthy of, or proper for; cause to appear well; grow or come to be

beforehand: in state of anticipation; in advance; by way of preparation

behalf: represent; advantage, benefit, interest of someone

behave: perform; conduct oneself in a proper way

behavior: conduct; manner

belly: part of human body which extends downward from breast to thighs, and contains bowels; womb

beloved: greatly loved; dear to the heart

below: under, or lower in place; beneath not so high; inferior to in rank; unworthy of

bend: strain or move out of a straight line; curve; turn toward some certain point

beneath: lower in place, with something directly over or on; under; underneath; below

beneficial: helpful; tending to promote physical well-being

beneficiary: person entitled to benefits or proceeds of an insurance policy or will

benefit: advantage; something that aids or promotes well-being ; welfare; gain

benevolent: generous in providing aid to others; charitable

bent: determined to do or have

besides: over and above; separate or distinct from; in addition to; other than

bestow: give as gift; present

bet: stake or pledge upon the event of a contingent issue; amount or object risked in a wager

betray: be unfaithful; reveal unconsciously or unwillingly

beverage: liquids for drinking, usually excluding water; refreshment

bewilder: lead into perplexity or confusion; perplex with mazes

bias: preference or inclination, especially one that inhibits impartial judgment; influence in unfair way

bid: make an offer of; propose; offer in words; declare, as a wish, a greeting, a threat, or defiance

bill: invoice; act; proposal; statement or list of particulars, such as a theater program or menu

billion: the number that is represented as a one followed by 9 zeros

bind: tie, or confine with a cord, band, or chain; make fast; contract; cohere or stick together

biographer: one who writes a book about somebody's life

biography: an account of the series of events making up a person's life; accounts of people's life

biologist: scientist who studies living organisms

bite: pierce skin with teeth; seize with the teeth; sting with a stinger; eat into; have a sharp taste

bitter: harsh or corrosive in tone; painful; acrid; acrimonious

bitterness: sharp and bitter manner

blacksmith: one who forges and shapes iron with a hammer and anvil

blade: flat part of the leaf, of any plant, especially of gramineous plants; cutting part of an instrument

blame: condemn; rebuke; find fault with; censure

blank: of a white or pale color; without color; empty; void

blanket: heavy, loosely woven fabric, usually of wool, and having a nap, used in bed clothing

blast: explode; burst; gale; very strong gust of wind or air

blaze: brilliant burst of fire; destructive fire; flame

bleach: make white or colorless; blanch

bleed: emit blood; lose blood; withdraw blood from the body

blend: combination; mixture; forming uniform mixture

bless: make or pronounce holy; consecrate; make happy

blessing: praying for divine protection; formal act of giving approval

blink: shut eyes briefly; wink

block: hinder; obstruct; indicate broadly without great detail; sketch

bloom: flower; blossom; best time of youth; period of greatest prosperity or productivity

blossom: reproductive organ of plants, especially one having showy or colorful parts

blot: spot or stain, as of ink on paper; blur; weak point or failing

blunder: serious mistake typically caused by ignorance or confusion

blunt: having a dull edge or end; not sharp; lacking in feeling; insensitive

blush: become rosy or reddish; turn red, as if in embarrassment or shame

board: a committee having supervisory powers; a flat piece of material designed for a special purpose

boarding: wooden boards collectively; act of entering a ship; supplying with meals and lodgings for pay

boast: show off oneself; speak of with excessive pride

bodyguard: guard to protect or defend person; lifeguard

boil: be agitated; pass from a liquid to vapor when heated; be excited with passion; heat in water

bold: brave; daring; intrepid; impudent

bolt: dash or dart off; move or jump suddenly

bond: link; connection; uniting force or tie; binding agreement; duty

bonus: an extra dividend to the shareholders; money paid in addition to a stated compensation

bookcase: case with shelves for holding books, especially one with glazed doors

boom: bonanza; prosperity; prosper; expand; flourish

booming: deep and resonant; flourishing; thriving

boost: raise; advance; push or shove upward

booth: house or shed built for temporary occupation; covered stall or temporary structure

border: outer part or edge of anything, as of a garment, a garden; margin; verge; brink; boundary

bore: drill; make a hole in or through, with or as if with a drill

boring: uninteresting and tiresome; dull

bother: annoy; trouble; make agitated or nervous; fluster

bounce: jolt; rebound after having struck an object or a surface

bound: tied; held; committed; limit; constraint; leap; jump

boundary: dividing line; border; frontier

bourgeois: middle class; selfishly materialistic; dully conventional

bow: inclination of head, or bending of body for reverence, respect, civility, or submission; bending or rounded part of ship forward

bowl: throw or roll a ball; move quickly and smoothly, especially by rolling

boycott: refrain from buying or using

brace: something which holds anything tightly or supports it firmly, as bandage, cord, or rod;

brain: organ or seat of intellect; understanding or imagination

brake: a piece of mechanism for retarding or stopping motion by friction

brand: burning piece of wood; mark made by burning with a hot iron; distinctive mark upon in any way

breach: breaking of contract or duty

breadth: measure or dimension from side to side; width; extent

break: opportunity to do something; pause or interval, as from work; sudden change

breakdown: process of failing to function or continue; sudden collapse in physical or mental health; summary of itemized data

breakthrough: act of overcoming or penetrating an obstacle or restriction

breath: air that is inhaled and exhaled in respiration

breathe: respire; inhale and exhale air

breed: raise; produce offspring; give birth to or hatch; mate

breeze: light current of air; gentle wind; progress swiftly and effortlessly

bribe: something serving to influence or persuade; reward or gift with a view to prevent judgment

bridle: headgear with which a horse is directed and which carries a bit and reins

brief: short in time, duration, length, or extent; concise

brighten: lighten; cheer; encourage; make or become bright or brighter

brilliance: cleverness; magnificence

brilliant: full of light; shining; bright; sharp and clear in tone

brim: brink; edge

brink: edge, margin, or border of a steep place verge

brisk: marked by speed, liveliness, and vigor; energetic; swift; keen or sharp in speech or manner

brittle: easily broken; having little elasticity

broadcast: message that is transmitted by radio or television; radio or television show

broaden: widen; grow broad or broader

brochure: pamphlet; small book usually having paper cover

bronze: an alloy of copper and tin and sometimes other elements

brood: think long and anxiously; be in a state of gloomy, serious thought

brook: creek; stream

brown: of dark color, of various shades between black and red or yellow

bruise: injure, as by a blow or collision; contuse; fight with the fists

brutal: like a brute; savage; cruel; inhuman; merciless

brute: not having sensation; senseless; inanimate; unconscious; without intelligence

bubble: foam; dome-shaped covering made of transparent glass or plastic; fantastic or impracticable idea or belief

bucket: vessel for drawing up water from a well; vessel for hoisting and conveying coal, ore, grain

bud: one that is not yet fully developed; sprout

budget: estimate; a sum of money allocated for a particular purpose

buffet: table with food set out for people to serve themselves; meal at which people help themselves to food that's been set out

bug: general name applied to various insects

bulb: rounded part of a cylindrical structure; electric lamp consisting of a glass ball

bulk: majority; main part; volume; mass

bulky: of large size for its weight

bull: male of any species of cattle; large, strong, and aggressive person; optimist regarding business conditions

bulletin: brief statement of facts; any public notice or announcement; a periodical publication

bullion: gold and silver in the form of bars

bump: impact as from a collision; lump on the body caused by a blow

bunch: clump; cluster; gathering

bundle: packet; a package of things tied together; a large sum of money

burdensome: not easily borne; wearing; causing uneasiness or fatigue

bureaucracy: over-regulated administrative system

burial: grave or tomb; ritual placing of a corpse in a grave; concealing something under the ground

bush: place abounding in trees or shrubs; wild forest

business: rightful concern or responsibility; occupation, work, or trade in which a person is engaged; commercial enterprise

butcher: one whose job is to kill animals for food; one who kills in large numbers, or with unusual cruelty

butter: oily, unctuous substance obtained from cream or milk by churning

butterfly: insect typically having a slender body with broad colorful wings

buzz: confusion of activity and gossip; sound of rapid vibration

bygone: past; gone by

bypass: channel used to conduct gas or liquid around another pipe or a fixture; conductor having low resistance in parallel

by-product: product made during the manufacture of something else

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