Monday, 27 May 2013

IELTS 4000 Academic Word List (14)

qualification: an attribute that must be met

qualified: restricted; having the appropriate qualifications for an office, position, or task

qualify: make such as is required; give added or requisite qualities to; make legally capable

qualitative: relating to quality; having the character of quality

quantitative: expressed or expressible as a quantity; relating to measurement of quantity

quarter: one of four equal parts; a fourth part or portion

quarterly: every three months; in three month intervals

quartz: a hard glossy mineral consisting of silicon dioxide in crystal form

quay: dock; landing place; reinforced bank where ships are loaded or unloaded

queer: odd or unconventional, as in behavior; eccentric; mysterious; suspicious; questionable

quench: put out a fire; extinguish; put an end to; destroy

query: inquiry; doubt in the mind; mental reservation

quest: act of searching for something

questionnaire: form containing a set of questions; submitted to people to gain statistical information

quilt: bedding made of two layers of cloth filled with stuffing

quiver: shake with slight, rapid, tremulous movement

quota: limitation on imports; ration; prescribed number

quotation: passage or expression that is quoted or cited; practice of quoting from books

quote: cite or repeat a passage from; repeat or copy the words of another

rack: framework for holding objects

racket: thin strip of wood, having the ends brought together, forming elliptical hoop, across which a network of catgut or cord is stretched; broad wooden shoe or pattern for a man or horse, to enable him to step on marshy or soft ground

radar: measuring instrument to detect distant objects by microwave

radiant: brilliant; delighted

radiate: spread out; effuse; issue or emerge in rays or waves

radiation: very small particles of a radioactive substance that can cause illness or death

radical: drastic; extreme; arising from or going to a root or source; basic

radius: right line drawn or extending from the center of a circle to the periphery

rage: something that is desired intensely; state of extreme anger

raid: search without warning; surprise attack by a small armed force

rail: scold; express objections or criticisms in bitter, harsh, or abusive language

rainbow: arc of colored light in sky caused by refraction of the sun's rays by rain

rally: call up or summon; call together for a common purpose

ramble: wander aimlessly; move about aimlessly; walk about casually or for pleasure

ranch: farm consisting of a large tract of land

random: without definite purpose, plan, or aim; having no specific pattern

range: limits within which something can be effective; variety of different things or activities

rank: hold a particular position in a social hierarchy; form or stand in a row or rows

rapture: seizing by violence; hurrying along; rapidity with violence; state or condition of being rapt, or carried away from one's self by agreeable excitement

rare: scarce; infrequently occurring; uncommon

rarely: not often; in an unusual degree; exceptionally

rat: any of various long tailed rodents, similar to but larger than mouse

ratify: approve formally; confirm; verify

ratio: relation which one quantity or magnitude has to another of the same kind; rate; proportion

ration: allotment; allowance; portion; allot; distribute in rations

rational: consistent with; based on; using reason

rattle: a rapid series of short loud sounds; loosely connected horny sections

ravage: bring heavy destruction on; devastate

raw: in the natural unprocessed condition; cruel and unfair; uncooked; untrained and inexperienced

ray: one of a number of lines diverging from a point; a line of light or heat proceeding from a point

razor: sharp-edged cutting instrument used especially for shaving the face or other body parts

react: act against or in opposition to; show a response or a reaction

reactionary: opposition to progress or liberalism; extremely conservative

readily: easily; quickly; in a prompt, timely manner; promptly

realization: fulfillment; awareness; coming to understand something clearly and distinctly

realm: kingdom; domain ruled by a king or queen

reap: gain; harvest a crop from; get or derive; obtain as a result of effort

rear: side of an object that is opposite its front; hind part; point or area farthest from the front

reasonable: showing reason or sound judgment; capable of reasoning; rational; being within bounds of common sense

reassure: give or restore confidence in; cause to feel sure or certain

rebel: one who takes part in an armed group against the constituted authority; revolt;

rebellion: organized opposition to authority

rebuke: scold harshly; criticize severely

recall: remember; call back; cause to be returned

recede: move back; retreat; withdraw a claim or pretension

receipt: act of receiving; acknowledgment of goods delivered or money paid

reception: act of receiving; manner in which something is greeted

receptionist: secretary whose main duty is to answer the telephone and receive visitors

recession: withdrawal; retreat; time of low economic activity

recipe: medical prescription; a set of directions for making or preparing something, especially food

recipient: receiver; one that receives or is receptive

reciprocal: concerning each of two or more persons or things; exchangeable; interacting

recite: repeat, as something already prepared, written down, committed to memory; rehearse, as a lesson to an instructor

reckless: headstrong; rash; indifferent to or disregardful of consequences

reckon: compute; take account of; have faith or confidence in

reclaim: bring into or return to a suitable condition for use; claim back; make useful again

recognition: acceptance ; appreciation; approval

recognize: perceive the identity of; consent or admit with a formal acknowledgment; show appreciation of

recollection: memory; remembrance; power of recalling ideas to the mind

recommend: suggest; bestow commendation on; represent favorably

recommendation: making attractive or acceptable; pushing for something

recompense: render an equivalent to, for service, loss; requite; remunerate; compensate; give in return; pay back

reconcile: correct inconsistencies; become friendly after a quarrel; become compatible or consistent

reconnaissance: gain information about enemy; inspection or exploration of an area

recourse: one that is turned or applied to for aid or security; resort for help or protection; access or admittance

recover: get or find back; regain a former condition

recreation: amusement; entertainment

recruit: enlist; register formally as a participant; engage for military service

rectangle: a parallelogram with four right angles

rectify: set right; correct by calculation or adjustment

recur: reappear; happen or occur again

recurrence: act of recurring, or state of being recurrent; return

redeem: purchase back; regain possession of by payment; ransom or rescue from captivity; pay penalty; make amends for

reed: tall woody perennial grasses with hollow slender stems

reef: chain or range of rocks lying at or near the surface of the water

reel: frame with radial arms, or a kind of spool, turning on axis, on which threads or lines are wound

referee: someone to investigate and report on a case or to ensure fair play

reference: act of referring or consulting; remark that calls attention to something or someone

refine: purify; make more precise; improve

refined: cultured; purified; made pure

refinement: result of improving something; process of removing impurities

reflect: throw or bend back light from a surface; give back or show an image of; mirror

reflection: image of something as reflected by mirror; remark expressing careful consideration

refrain: abstain from; resist; hold oneself back

refreshment: activity that refreshes and recreates; snacks and drinks served as a light meal

refrigerator: machines in which food can be stored at low temperatures

refugee: one who flees to shelter, or place of safety

refund: repayment of fund; an amount repaid

refusal: act of refusing; denial of anything demanded

refute: disprove; prove to be false or incorrect

regarding: with respect to; by concerning

regardless: without consideration; in spite of everything; anyway

regime: form of government; government in power; administration; prevailing social system or pattern

regiment: government; mode of ruling; rule; authority

region: province; district; tract; neighborhood; the upper air; sky or heavens; inhabitants of a district

register: give outward signs of; express; record in writing; enroll as a student

regulate: bring into conformity with rules or principles or usage; impose regulations; fix or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate of

regulation: act of controlling or directing according to rule; prescribed by or according to rule

rehearsal: act of rehearsing; exercise or practice to prepare for a public performance

rehearse: practice; drill; engage in preparation for a public performance

reign: sovereignty; rule; dominance or widespread influence

reimburse: pay back for some expense incurred

rein: strap or rope attached to the bridle or bit, used to control a horse or other animal; instrument or means of curbing, restraining, or governing

reinforce: give more force or effectiveness to; strengthen; enhance

reiterate: say, state, or perform again or repeatedly

reject: turn down; refuse to accept; dismiss from consideration

rejection: act of rejecting something

rejoice: feel joy; experience gladness in a high degree; have pleasurable satisfaction; be delighted; enjoy

relax: make less severe or strict; become less tense

relaxation: state of refreshing tranquility; act of making less strict

relay: act of passing something along from one person, group, or station to another

release: give off; liberate; grant freedom to; make something available

relevant: pertinent; having connection with matter at hand

reliability: trait of being dependable or reliable

reliable: worthy of being depended on; trustworthy

reliance: dependence; certainty based on past experience

relief: easing of burden or distress, such as pain or anxiety; release from post or duty; pleasant or amusing change

relieve: free from a burden; alleviate; save from ruin

religion: belief in supernatural power regarded as creator and governor of the universe

religious: of religion; concerned with religion; having or showing belief in and reverence for God or a deity

relinquish: give up something with reluctance; retire from; give up or abandon

relish: take keen or zestful pleasure in; enjoy the flavor of; give spice or flavor to

reluctance: state of being reluctant; unwillingness; hesitancy in taking some action

reluctant: not wanting to take some action; averse

rely: rest with confidence; have confidence; depend

remainder: remnant; something left after other parts have been taken away

remains: all that is left after other parts have been taken away, used up, or destroyed; corpse; ancient ruins or fossils

remark: expression, in speech or writing, of something remarked or noticed

remarkable: worthy of notice; extraordinary

remedy: a medicine or therapy; ; cure; fix; repair; provide relief for

remind: recall knowledge from memory; have a recollection

reminiscence: recollection; process of remembering

remit: send back; give up; surrender; resign; restore; transmit or send, especially as money in payment of a demand

remittance: transmitting money, bills, especially to a distant place, as in satisfaction of a demand, or in discharge of an obligation

remnant: remainder; small part or portion that remains after the main part no longer exists

remove: move away from the position occupied; cause to change place; take away

renaissance: revival; renewal; revival of learning and culture

render: deliver;give or make available; provide; represent in a drawing or painting

renew: renovate; make new or as if new again; restore

renewable: capable of being renewed or extended

renewal: act of renewing; filling again by supplying what has been used up

rent: payment, usually of an amount fixed by contract

rental: amount paid or collected as rent; act of renting

repeal: revoke or annul, especially by official or formal act

repel: force or drive back; disgust; offer resistance to; fight against

repent: cause to feel remorse or regret; feel regret or self-reproach for

repetition: act of doing or performing again

replace: substitute; put in the place of another; switch seemingly equivalent items

replacement: act of replacing; substitution; person or thing that takes the place of another

replenish: fill or make complete again; add a new stock or supply to

represent: stand for; describe or present; play a role or part

representation: act of representing; standing in for someone or some group and speaking with authority in their behalf

representative: one that represents anything; that which exhibits a likeness or similitude; agent

reproach: express disapproval or disappointment; bring shame upon; disgrace

reproduce: have offspring or young; duplicate; make a copy

reproduction: act of making copies

reptile: cold-blooded vertebrate including tortoises turtles snakes lizards alligators crocodiles

repudiate: disown; refuse to acknowledge; reject validity or authority of

reputable: having a good reputation; honorable

reputation: state of being held in high esteem; general estimation in which a person is held by the public

repute: ascribe a particular fact or characteristic to; consider; suppose

request: express the need or desire for; ask for

require: insist upon having; request and expect

requisite: necessary requirement; indispensable item

rescind: cancel; make void; repeal or annul

rescue: free from harm or evil; take from legal custody by force

research: inquire into; attempt to find out in scientific manner

resemblance: likeness; similarity in appearance or external or superficial details

resemble: be similar to; take after; look like

resent: feel bitter; consider as injury or affront; be in angry

resentment: indignation; deep sense of injury; strong displeasure

reserve: lack of enthusiasm; skeptical caution; something saved for future use; self-restraint in expression

reservoir: tank used for collecting and storing a liquid; holding pond; lake used to store water for community use

reside: dwell; live in a place permanently or for an extended period

residence: official house; large house; act of dwelling in a place

resident: one who resides in a place permanently or for an extended period; dweller

residual: remaining as a residue; surplus

resign: sign back; return by a formal act; yield to another; abandon

resignation: act of resigning or giving up, as a claim, possession, or office; surrender

resist: stand up or offer resistance; refuse to comply; withstand the force of something

resistance: action of opposing something that you disapprove or disagree with

resistant: unaffected; incapable of being affected

resolute: firm, unyielding, or determined; having decided purpose

resolution: determination; resolving to do something; formal statement of a decision

resolve: determination; formal expression by a meeting; agreed to by a vote

resort: vacation spot; act of turning to for assistance

resource: materials; abilities; available source

respect: honor or esteem; admire; aspect; detail or point

respective: individual; relating to particular persons or things, each to each; particular; respectful; regardful

respectively: separately; individually; in the order given

respond: show a reaction to something favorably or as hoped

responsibility: duties; obligation; state of being responsible, accountable, or answerable

responsible: accountable; held accountable

restless: never resting; unquiet; uneasy; continually moving; eager for change; discontented

restore: give or bring back; return to its original condition

restrain: keep under control; hold back ; place limits on

restraint: moderation or limitation; controlling force; loss of freedom; control of feelings

restrict: keep or confine within limits

restriction: act of keeping something within specified bounds; a principle that limits the extent of something

restrictive: tending or serving to restrict; limiting; confining

resume: give a summary; return to a previous location or condition

retail: selling of goods to consumers

retailer: company which sells goods

retain: keep; maintain possession of; hire by payment of a fee; keep in mind; remember

retire: move back and away from; stop performing one's work or withdraw from one's position

retirement: period of your life after you have stopped work at a certain age

retort: reply, especially to answer in a quick, caustic, or witty manner

retreat: receding; pull back or move away or backward; withdrawal of troops to a more favorable position

retroactive: extending in scope or effect to a prior time or to prior conditions

reveal: make known; disclose or show

revenge: do punishment in return for injury or insult; avenge

revenue: money which returns from an investment; annual income; reward

reverence: profound respect and esteem mingled with fear and affection, as for a holy being or place; disposition to revere; act of revering

reverse: overturn; turn inside out or upside down; turning in the opposite direction

revert: return to a former condition, practice, subject, or belief; backslide; turn back to

review: summary of a longer discussion; formal examination; practice to refresh memory

revise: amend; change

revision: modification; correction; act of altering

revival: bringing again into activity and prominence

revive: restore from a depressed; renew

revoke: void or annul by recalling, withdrawing, or reversing; cancel; retract

revolt: organize opposition to authority; make revolution

revolution: act of revolving; motion of body round a fixed point or line; rotation; total or radical change; fundamental change in political organization

revolutionary: marked by new or introducing radical change

revolve: turn or roll round on, or as on, an axis, like a wheel; rotate; move in curved path round a center; pass in cycles

reward: satisfying return or result; profit, return for performance of a desired behavior; positive reinforcement.

rhythm: pattern; beat; recurring at regular intervals

rib: one of the curved bones attached to the vertebral column and supporting the lateral walls of the thorax

ribbon: fillet or narrow woven fabric, commonly of silk; narrow strip of fine material used for trimming

riddle: pierce with numerous holes; perforate; permeate or spread throughout

ridge: long, narrow upper section or crest; chain of hills or mountains

ridicule: words or actions intended to evoke contemptuous laughter; make fun of

ridiculous: completely lacking of wisdom or good sense

rifle: shoulder firearm with a long barrel

righteous: morally justified; equitable; free from wrong, guilt, or sin

rigid: stiff and unyielding; strict; hard and unbending; not flexible

rigidity: stiffness; physical property of being stiff and resisting bending

rigor: strictness or severity, as in temperament, action, or judgment; something hard to endure

rigorous: full of rigors; harsh; rigidly accurate; precise

rim: border, edge, or margin of a thing, usually of something circular or curving

rinse: cleanse with water; flush; wash lightly without soap

riot: state of disorder involving group violence; rebellion

rip: tear or be torn violently; criticize or abuse strongly and violently

ripe: ready; fully developed; mature

ripen: grow ripe; cause to ripen or develop fully

ripple: form or display little undulations or waves on the surface, as disturbed water does

rise: move from a lower position to a higher; mount up; move upward; reach a higher level

risky: involving risk or danger; hazardous

rival: compete; be equal to in quality or ability; match

rivalry: competition; the act of competing as for profit or a prize

roam: wander; ramble; stroll

roar: bellow; rumble; make a loud noise

roast: cook with dry heat, usually in an oven; subject to laughter or ridicule

robe: outer garment; dress of rich, flowing, and elegant style or make; dress of state, rank, office

robust: vigorous; full of health and strength; vigorous

rod: stick; a long thin implement made of metal or wood

role: normal activity of a person in particular social setting; part played by a performer

roll: a list of names

rooster: adult male chicken

rot: become decomposed by a natural process; perish slowly; become corrupt

rotary: turning, as a wheel on its axis; pertaining to, or resembling, the motion of a wheel on its axis

rotate: plant or grow in a fixed cyclic order of succession; swirl; revolve; turn on or around an axis or a center

rotation: revolution; act of rotating as if on an axis

rough: not perfected; having or caused by an irregular surface

roughly: approximately; more or less

round: by moving in or forming a circle; from beginning to end; throughout; to a specific place or person

roundabout: circuitous; going round; indirect; encircling; enveloping; comprehensive

rouse: pull or haul strongly and all together, as upon a rope, without the assistance of mechanical appliances

route: way for travel or transportation

routine: unvarying or habitual method of procedure; occurring at fixed times or predictable intervals

royalty: being royal; quality of royal person; kingship; sovereignty; share of product, as a percentage paid to owner of copyright

rub: move over the surface with pressure and friction; spread a substance thinly over

ruin: fall or tumble down; destroy; devastate; exterminate

ruinous: causing, or tending to cause, ruin; destructive; baneful; pernicious

rule: governing direction for a specific purpose; regulation; systematic method

rural: country; relating to rural areas

rust: become destroyed by water, air, or an etching chemical such as an acid

ruthless: pitiless; cruel; having no compassion or pity; merciless

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