Monday, 27 May 2013

IELTS 4000 Academic Word List (13)

pace: single movement from one foot to the other in walking; slow gait; step

pack: pact or bundle made up and prepared to be carried; a number of similar things; a full set of playing cards

packaging: putting something into boxes

pad: soft or small cushion; a kind of cushion for writing upon, or for blotting

painting: drawing; picture or design in paint; action of applying paint to a surface

pair: two people or things considered as a unit; two items of the same kind; couple

pale: not ruddy; dusky white; pallid; not bright or brilliant

palm: inner surface of the hand between bases of fingers and wrist; tropical evergreen trees of the family Palmae

pamphlet: brochure; leaflet; a small book usually having a paper cover

pan: criticize harshly; wash in pan; cook in pan

pane: framed section of window or door that is filled with a sheet of glass or others; panel in a wall or door

panel: a group of people gathered for a special purpose; small board or pad

panic: sudden mass fear and anxiety

panorama: complete view in every direction.

panoramic: related to unobstructed and comprehensive view; with a wide view

pant: breathe quickly or in a labored manner; respire with heaving of the breast; sigh

pantry: apartment or closet in which bread and other provisions are kept

pants: trousers; underwear; garment extending from waist to knee or ankle

par: amount or level considered to be average; standard; equality of status, level, or value

parachute: rescue equipment consisting of a device that fills with air and retards your fall

parade: march in a procession; ceremonial procession; visible display

paradise: garden of Eden; any place of complete delight and peace

paragraph: distinct division of written or printed matter that begins on a new, usually indented line

parallel: make or place something to another's side; of or relating to multiple operations at same time; not intersecting

paralyse: make unable to move or act; impair the progress or functioning of

parameter: characteristic or feature that distinguishes something from others

parasite: animal or plant living on another

parliament: discussion; formal conference on public affairs; general council, especially an assembly of representatives of a nation

partial: incomplete; fragmentary; favoring one person or side over another or others

participant: people who take part in

participate: take part in something; share in something

particle: a tiny piece of anything

partition: divide into parts, pieces, or sections

partner: person who is a member of a partnership; associate who works with others toward a common goal

passion: strong feeling or emotion ; fervor

passionate: zealous; enthusiastic; filled with or motivated by zeal

passive: lacking in energy or will; peacefully resistant in response to injustice

passport: legal document identifying the bearer as citizen of a country and allowing to travel abroad

pastime: something which amuses, and serves to make time pass agreeably; sport; amusement

pasture: field covered with grass; meadow

patch: a piece of cloth; small area of ground covered by specific vegetation

patent: open for the public to read; obvious; plain

path: way; footway; course or track; route; passage

pathetic: causing sadness, compassion, or pity

patriot: one who loves and defends his or her country

patriotic: inspired by love for one's country

patriotism: love of country; devotion to welfare of one's country; virtues and actions of patriot

patrol: activity of going on an area at regular intervals for security purposes

patron: benefactor; regular customer

patronage: sponsorship; support; state of being a sponsor

pave: coat; cover

pavement: floor or covering of solid material, laid so as to make hard and convenient surface for travel

pawn: something given as security for loan; pledge or guaranty; article deposited as security

peach: small tree in Prunus persica widely cultivated at temperate regions, having pink flowers and edible fruit

peak: summit; apex; maximum; prime

pebble: small smooth rounded rock

peck: pick; hit lightly with a picking motion; eat like a bird

peculiar: special; characteristic; unusual; odd; bizarre

peculiarity: eccentricity; oddness; an odd or unusual characteristic; private ownership; proprietorship

pedal: foot-operated lever used for actuating or controlling a mechanism

pedestrian: lacking wit or imagination; ordinary

peel: come off in flakes or thin small pieces; strip the skin off; get undressed

peer: gaze; stare; look searchingly; company with

penalty: punishment established by law or authority for a crime or offense; fine

pending: not yet decided or settled; awaiting conclusion or confirmation

penetrate: pierce; go through; permeate

penetration: act or process of penetrating, piercing, or entering

pension: something paid or given; payment to a person in consideration of past services

perceive: become aware of through the senses; detect

percent: out of each hundred; per hundred; one part in a hundred

perception: understanding; feeling; effect or product of perceiving

perch: a place high up; an elevated place serving as a seat

perfect: completed; not defective nor redundant; having all the properties or qualities; without flaw, fault, or blemish; without error

perfection: flawlessness; excellence; state of being without flaw or defect

perform: carry through; bring to completion; achieve; accomplish; execute

performance: act of performing; dramatic or musical entertainment; process or manner

performer: entertainer; who performs or takes part in a play or performance of any kind

perfume: pleasing, agreeable scent or odor

peril: danger; risk; hazard; jeopardy; exposure of person or property to injury, loss, or destruction

perimeter: outer boundary length; closed curve bounding a plane area

period: duration, continuance, term; end of something

periodic: repeated; recurring at intervals of time

periodical: publication that appears at fixed intervals

peripheral: located in outer boundary; unimportant; auxiliary

perish: be destroyed; pass away; become nothing

permanent: remaining without essential change

permission: consent; approval to do something

permissive: approving; tolerant; granting; not strict in discipline

permit: consent to; give permission

perpendicular: vertical; upright; intersecting at or forming right angles; extremely steep

perpetual: everlasting; continuing without interruption

perplex: baffle; confuse

persecute: pursue in a manner to injure, grieve, or afflict; beset with cruelty or malignity; harass; annoy

persecution: act or practice of persecuting on the basis of race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or beliefs that differ from those of the persecutor

perseverance: endurance; steady persistence in adhering to a course of action

persevere: endure; be persistent, refuse to stop

persist: continue; insist; persevere

persistence: endurance; tenacity; state or quality of being persistent; persistency

personal: particular to a given individual; concerning or affecting a particular person

personality: complex of all the attributes of a person; totality of qualities and traits of a person

personnel: group of people willing to obey orders

perspective: appearance of things; view, outlook, or vista

persuade: advise; counsel; urge the acceptance or practice of; convince

pertain: belong; have connection with, or dependence on

pertinent: having precise or logical relevance; pertaining or relating

perturb: disturb greatly; make uneasy or anxious; throw into great confusion

peruse: read or examine, typically with great care

pest: persistently annoying person; organism that injures livestock or crops

pet: animal kept for amusement or companionship

petition: plea; formal message requesting something

petroleum: dark oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons

petty: trivial; of small importance; very small

phase: any distinct time period in a sequence of events; stage

phenomenon: appearance; anything visible, in matter or spirit; extraordinary or very remarkable person, thing, or occurrence

philosophy: body of highest truth; investigation of nature, causes, or principles of reality, knowledge, or values, based on logical reasoning

phonetics: branch of acoustics concerned with speech processes including its production and perception and acoustic analysis

photograph: picture or likeness obtained by photography

phrase: brief expression, sometimes a single word, but usually two or more words forming an expression

physical: relating to the body as distinguished from the mind or spirit

physician: person skilled in physic, or the art of healing; one duty authorized to treat diseases; doctor of medicine

piano: stringed instrument that is played by depressing keys

pick: remove something with the fingers, or with the teeth; separate as choice or desirable

picnic: eat in the open air; have informal meal eaten outside or on an excursion

picturesque: scenic; striking or interesting in an unusual way

pier: landing place; platform built out from shore into water and supported by piles; provides access to ships

pigment: substance used as coloring; dry coloring matter

pile: large timber or post; heap; hair; fiber of wool, cotton; head of an arrow or spear

pilgrim: traveler; one who travels far, or in strange lands, to visit some holy place or shrine as a devotee

pill: a dose of medicine in the form of a small pellet; something that is unpleasant or offensive

pillar: column; post

pillow: a cushion to support the head of a sleeping person

pilot: one who guides a course of action for others; one who operates or is licensed to operate an aircraft in flight

pin: a piece of wood, metal, generally cylindrical, used for fastening separate articles together

pinch: clutch; squeeze between the thumb and a finger, the jaws of a tool, or other edges

pine: have desire for something or someone; yearn; grieve or mourn for

pineapple: large sweet fleshy tropical fruit with a terminal tuft of stiff leaves

pioneer: originator; explorer

pioneering: initial; groundbreaking; originating; serving to pioneer

pious: devout; religious; exhibiting strict, traditional sense of virtue and morality

pirate: robber on seas; one who by open violence takes the property of another on seas

pistol: the smallest firearm used, intended to be fired from one hand

piston: sliding piece which either is moved by, or moves against

pit: confront; set into opposition or rivalry

pitch: action or manner of throwing something

pitcher: container for liquids, having a handle and a lip or spout for pouring; player who throws the ball from the mound to the batter

plague: epidemic disease with a high death rate; annoyance

plain: without elevations or depressions; flat; smooth; not rich; simple; without beauty; not handsome

plane: flat or level surface; level of development, existence, or achievement

planet: celestial bodies that revolve around the sun

plantation: farm; an area under cultivation; a group of cultivated trees or plants

plaster: cover conspicuously, as by pasting something on; adhesive tape used in dressing wounds; a hardened surface as on a wall or ceiling

plastic: capable of being molded; capable of being shaped or formed; easily influenced

plate: flat piece of metal; thick sheet of metal; small, usually circular, vessel of metal or wood for food table

plateau: highland; upland; relatively flat highland

platform: stage; a raised horizontal surface

playwright: someone who writes plays

plea: request for help; excuse or pretext

plead: appeal or request earnestly; enter a plea; offer as an excuse

pleasure: agreeable sensations or emotions; excitement, relish, or happiness produced by the expectation or the enjoyment of something good, delightful, or satisfying

pledge: promise solemnly and formally; binding commitment to do something

plight: condition or state, especially a bad state or condition

plot: small extent of ground; secret scheme or strategy

plough: plow

pluck: pull or draw, especially, to pull with sudden force or effort, or to pull off or out from something

plug: something, such as a cork or a wad of cloth, used to fill a hole tightly; stopper

plumb: checking perpendicularity; exactly vertical

plumber: craftsman who installs and repairs pipes and fixtures and appliances

plume: feather, especially a soft, downy feather, or a long, conspicuous, or handsome feather; an ornamental tuft of feathers; token of honor or achievement

plump: sound of a sudden heavy fall; well-rounded and full in form

plunder: take goods of by force, or without right; spoil; sack; strip; rob

plunge: dive; submerge; become suddenly lower; decrease dramatically; throw oneself into a substance or place

plus: involving advantage or good; on the positive side or higher end of a scale

ply: bend; lay on closely, or in folds; work upon steadily, or with repeated acts; press upon

pneumonia: inflammation of the lungs

poke: push at, as with a finger or an arm; search or look curiously; proceed in slow or lazy manner; thrust forward

polar: pertaining to one of the poles of the earth; of the poles

pole: a long rod; one of two divergent or mutually exclusive opinions

policy: settled method of government to administer; system of public or official administration

polish: remove flaws from; perfect or complete

politics: profession devoted to governing and political affairs; study of government of states and other political units

poll: voting; survey; number of votes cast or recorded

pollute: make impure; make unfit for or harmful to living things, especially by the addition of waste matter

pollution: contamination; undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated

ponder: weigh; weigh in the mind; view with deliberation; examine carefully; consider attentively

pony: small horse; small glass of beer; word for word translation of a foreign language text

popcorn: small kernels of corn exploded by heat

popular: of common people; suitable to common people; easy to be comprehended; not abstruse; familiar; plain

popularity: quality of being widely admired or accepted or sought after

porcelain: ceramic ware made of a more or less translucent ceramic

porch: covered and enclosed entrance to building; covered passage

pore: gaze intently; stare; scrutinize; read or study carefully and attentively

port: place on waterway with facilities for loading and unloading ships

portable: mobile; easily or conveniently transported

portion: section or quantity within a larger thing; a part of a whole

portrait: portraiture; picture; likeness of a person, especially one showing the face

portray: depict; describe; draw

pose: pretend to be someone you are not; assume a posture as for artistic purposes

positive: involving advantage or good ; greater than zero; very sure; confident

possess: occupy in person; hold or actually have in one's own keeping; have and hold; have the legal title to

possession: act of having and controlling property; belongings

post: display announcement in a place of public view; publish on a list

postage: token that postal fee has been paid; charge for mailing something

postal: of or relating to the system for delivering mail

postcard: card for sending messages by post without an envelope

posterity: descendants; future generations

postpone: hold back to a later time; delay; defer

postulate: essential premise; underlying assumption

pot: metallic or earthen vessel for boiling meat or vegetables, for holding liquids, or for plant

potent: powerful; having power to influence or convince; having great control or authority

potential: existing in possibility; expected to become or be

potentiality: inherent capacity for coming into being; an aptitude that may be developed

poultry: domestic fowls reared for eating, or for their eggs or feathers, such as cocks and hens, capons, turkeys, ducks, and geese

pound: unit of weight equal to 16 ounces

pour: flow in a spurt; rain heavily; supply in large amounts

poverty: lack of money; state of being poor; lack of the means of providing material needs or comforts

practicable: feasible; capable of being effected, done, or put into practice

practical: based on experience; useful

practically: virtually; actually; for all practical purpose

prairie: treeless grassy plain; extensive area of flat or rolling

preach: advocate; speak, plead; argue in favor of

precaution: prevention; measure taken beforehand; act of foresight

precede: come before; antecede

precedence: fact, state, or right of preceding; priority; previous occurrence, or existence before; preceding act or speech

precedent: act or instance that may be used as example in subsequent similar cases

preceding: ahead; prior to

precious: of high worth or cost

precise: exact; clearly expressed; accurate or correct

precision: exactness; accuracy; number of significant digits to which a value has been reliably measured

predecessor: former occupant of post; ancestor or forefather

predict: state, tell about, or make known in advance, especially on the basis of special knowledge

prediction: something foretold or predicted; prophecy

predominant: most frequent or common; having superior power and influence

preface: something spoken as introductory to a discourse, or written as introductory to a book or essay

preferable: favored; better; more desirable or worthy than another; preferred

preference: a strong liking; favorite

pregnancy: condition of being pregnant; fruitfulness; fertility

pregnant: expecting a baby; carrying within the body or being about to produce new life

prejudice: opinion formed without due examination; leaning toward one side of a question

preliminary: prior to or preparing for the main matter; introductory

prelude: introduction; forerunner; preliminary or preface

premature: too soon; too early; occurring before a state of readiness

premium: having or reflecting superior quality or value

prescribe: dictate; guide; advise the use of; assert a right; claim

prescribed: set down as a rule or guide; certain; stated

prescription: written instructions from doctor; written order; act of establishing official rules, laws, or directions

presence: state of being present; current existence

present: being in existence; something presented as a gift; period of time that is happening now

presentation: show or display; act of presenting something to sight or view

preservation: conservation; protection

preserve: uphold; retain; maintain in safety from injury, peril, or harm

preside: be set, or to sit, in the place of authority; to occupy the place of president, chairman, moderator, director; direct, control, and regulate, as chief officer

press: machines or devices that apply pressure or print; collecting and publishing of news; journalism in general

pressure: stress; tension; condition of being pressed

prestige: impression produced by achievements or reputation; recognized distinction or importance

presumably: assumedly; supposedly

presume: take for granted as true in absence of proof; venture without authority

pretense: act of giving a false appearance; imaginative intellectual play

pretentious: intended to attract notice and impress others; making unjustified claims; overly ambitious

prevail: induce; be greater in strength or influence; triumph; win out

prevailing: most frequent; widespread; predominant

prevalent: widespread; widely or commonly occurring, existing, accepted

previous: existing or occurring before something else

prey: target of a hunt; animal hunted or caught for food

prick: penetrate or puncture by a sharp and slender thing

primary: of first rank or importance or value; essential or basic

prime: first in excellence, quality, or value; at the best stage; peak; first in degree or rank; chief

primitive: belonging to an early stage; simple or naive in style; primeval

principal: highest in rank, authority, character, importance, or degree

principle: basic truth or law or assumption; rule or law of nature; rule of personal conduct

prior: preceding in the order of time; former; previous

priority: preceding in time, importance, or urgency

privacy: quality of being secluded from view of others; condition of being hidden

privilege: special advantage or benefit not enjoyed by all; right reserved exclusively

probe: explore with tools; investigate; search

problematic: open to doubt; unsettled; questionable; difficult to solve

procedure: act or manner of moving forward; act performed; steps taken in an action

proceed: follow a certain course; move ahead; travel onward

proceeding: a sequence of steps by which legal judgments are invoked

proceeds: profit, money made from selling something; income arising from land or other property

process: act of proceeding; continued forward movement; a series of actions

procession: act of proceeding, moving on, advancing, or issuing; regular, orderly, or ceremonious progress; continuous course

proclaim: declare; announce

procure: bring into possession; cause to accrue to, or to come into possession of; cause to come; bring

produce: bring forward; lead forth; offer to view or notice; exhibit; cause to be or to happen

productive: having quality or power of producing; yielding or furnishing results; causing to exist

productivity: quality or state of being productive; productiveness.

profession: occupation requiring special education

professional: engaged in, or suitable for a profession

proficiency: skillfulness in command of fundamentals deriving from practice and familiarity; expertise

proficient: skilled; expert; having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude

profile: outline; biographical sketch

profit: advantageous gain or return; income received from investments or property

profound: deep; not superficial; far-reaching

progress: moving or going forward; proceeding onward; advance

progressive: forward-looking; advancing; incremental

prohibit: ban; taboo; forbid

prohibitive: tending to discourage; prohibiting; forbidding

project: any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted; program; plan; scheme

projection: plan for anticipated course of action; thing that extends outward beyond a prevailing line or surface

projector: optical device for projecting a beam of light

proletarian: member of working class; blue collar person

prolong: make longer; draw out; lengthen

prominence: relative importance; property of being prominent; a standing out from the surface of something

prominent: conspicuous; immediately noticeable; sticking out; widely known

promise: declaration assuring that one will or will not do something; indication of something favorable to come

promising: likely to develop in a desirable manner; affording hope

promote: help to flourish; advance in rank; publicize

prompt: move to act; incite; give rise to; assist with a reminder

prone: inclined; lying face downward; having a tendency

proof: evidence; demonstration; statement or argument used in such a validation

propaganda: organization or plan for spreading a particular doctrine or a system of principles

propagate: cause something to multiply or breed; cause to extend to broader area or larger number

propel: drive forward; cause to move forward or onward; push

propeller: machine for propelling an aircraft or boat; one who propels

proper: belonging to one; one's own; individual; belonging to natural or essential constitution; peculiar; not common; particular

property: any tangible or intangible possession that is owned by someone

prophet: one who speaks by divine inspiration or as the interpreter through whom the will of a god is expressed

proportion: percentage; quotient obtained when a part is divided by the whole; part considered in relation to the whole

proposal: something proposed; act of making a proposal; an offer of marriage

propose: make a proposal, declare a plan for something

proposition: plan suggested for acceptance; a matter to be dealt with; subject for discussion or analysis

proprietor: one who has legal title to something; owner

proprietorship: an unincorporated business owned by a single person who is responsible for its liabilities and entitled to its profits

prose: essay; ordinary speech or writing; commonplace expression or quality

prosecute: seek to obtain or enforce by legal action; carry out or participate in an activity; be involved in

prosecutor: one who carries out legal action, especially criminal proceedings; one who prosecutes any purpose, plan, or business

prospect: possibility of future success; belief about future

prosperity: good fortune; financial success; physical well-being

prosperous: successful; thriving; having or characterized by financial success or good fortune

protein: any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells

protest: expression of disagreement and disapproval; complain against

protocol: code of correct conduct ; rules governing socially acceptable behavior; record of transaction

prototype: original work used as a model; original type

provincial: relating to a province; limited in outlook; unsophisticated

provision: stipulated condition; act of supplying or fitting out; something provided

provisional: temporary; provided for present need only

provocation: unfriendly behavior that causes anger or resentment; aggravation

provoke: stir to anger; give rise to; stir to action or feeling

prudence: quality or state of being prudent; wisdom in the way of caution and provision; good judgment

prudent: cautious; careful in regard to one's own interests

psychology: science that deals with mental processes and behavior

publication: act or process of publishing printed matter; communication of information to public

publicity: state of being public; information to attract public notice

publish: make public; make known to mankind, or to people in general

pull: steer or move into a certain direction; take away; remove from a fixed position; extract

pulse: beat; rhythm; rate at which heart beats;

pump: draw fluid or gas by pressure or suction; supply in great quantities

pumpkin: usually large pulpy deep-yellow round fruit of the squash family

punch: blow; drive forcibly; pierce; hit with a sharp blow of the fist

punctual: consisting in a point; limited to a point; unexpended; precise

pupil: a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution

puppy: young dog; pup; doll; puppet

purchase: act or an instance of buying; something bought

purify: refine; make pure or free from sin or guilt; become clean

purity: condition of being pure; freedom from foreign admixture or deleterious matter; cleanness

purple: chromatic color between red and blue; belonging to or befitting a supreme ruler

purse: gather or contract into wrinkles or folds; contract one's lips into a rounded shape

pursue: follow in; go in search of or hunt for

pursuit: follow after; follow with a view to obtain; endeavor to attain

puzzle: difficult question or problem

pyramid: a massive memorial with a square base and four triangular sides; built as royal tombs in ancient Egypt

No comments:

Post a Comment

Total Pageviews of this BLOG


Flag Counter

Alexa Traffic