Monday, 27 May 2013

IELTS 4000 Academic Word List (17)

ugly: offensive to the sight; contrary to beauty; disagreeable aspect; unsightly

ultimate: final; being the last or concluding; fundamental; elemental; extreme

ultimately: as final consequence; at last; in the end

ultrasonic: supersonic; higher in frequency than the range of sound perceptible to the human ear

ultraviolet: wave lengths shorter than light but longer than X rays

unanimous: uniform; in complete agreement

unbearable: unendurable; so unpleasant, distasteful, or painful as to be intolerable

unconscious: lacking awareness; senseless; unaware

uncover: remove the cover from; expose; disclose

underestimate: make too low an estimate of the quantity; undervalue

undergo: experience; suffer; pass through

undergraduate: university student who has not yet received a first degree

underground: under the level of the ground; buried

underline: mark a line below, as words; underscore.

underlying: lying under or beneath something; basic; implicit; taking precedence; prior

undermine: weaken by wearing away base or foundation; injure or impair; dig a mine or tunnel beneath

underneath: under or below an object or a surface; lower down on the page

undertake: take on; embark on; assume

undertaking: task or assignment undertaken; career

undo: release; cause the ruin or downfall of; cancel or reverse an action

undoubtedly: unquestionably; without doubt; certainly

undue: not due; not yet owing; not just, proper, or legal; ; excessive

uneasy: not easy; difficult; restless; disturbed by pain, anxiety

unfair: unjust; contrary to laws or conventions, especially in commerce

unfold: extend or stretch out to a greater or the full length; happen

unfortunately: unluckily; by bad luck

uniform: consistent; standardized; clothing of a particular group

unique: without an equal; being the only one of its kind

unity: cohesion; harmony; quality of being united into one

universal: affecting all; general; present everywhere; relating to the entire world or all within the world; worldwide

universe: cosmos; everything that exists anywhere

unlikely: improbable; has little chance of being the case or coming about

unload: take something off a container

unprecedented: having no previous example; novel; unparalleled

unsatisfactory: not giving satisfaction; inadequate

unstable: inconstant; variable; lacking control of one's emotions; constantly changing

unwarranted: having no justification; groundless; not guaranteed to be good, sound, or of a certain quality

uphold: support; preserve; hold aloft; raise

upright: in an erect position or posture; perpendicular; vertical, or nearly vertical; pointing upward

upset: concerned by anxious uneasiness or trouble or grief

urban: metropolitan; of, relating to, or located in a city

urge: force in an indicated direction; stimulate; excite

urgent: pressing; compelling immediate action or attention

utensil: instrument, implement, or container for practical use, especially in kitchen or laboratory

utility: something useful; public service

utilization: state of having been made use of; the act of using

utilize: put into service; take advantage of

utmost: farthest point or extremity; most distant; extreme

utter: speak; express; send forth with the voice

utterance: vocal expression; power of speaking; last or utmost extremity

vacancy: absence; emptiness

vacant: void of thought or knowledge; without an occupant or incumbent

vacation: leisure time away from work; act of making something legally void

vaccinate: perform or produce immunity

vacuum: empty area or space; electrical home appliance that cleans by suction

vague: imprecise; indistinct; not clearly expressed; inexplicit

vain: having no real substance, value, or importance; empty; void; worthless; unsatisfying

valid: logically convincing; sound; legally acceptable; well grounded

validity: quality of having legal force or effectiveness

valley: space between ranges of mountains; area drained or irrigated by a river system; internal angle formed by intersection

valve: device or structure for controlling the flow of a fluid

vanish: disappear; pass out of sight, especially quickly; die out

vanity: quality or state of being vain; emptiness; feelings of excessive pride; conceit

vapor: gas; steam; barely visible or cloudy diffused matter, such as mist or smoke

variable: factor; something that is likely to vary; changeable; inconstant

variance: an event that departs from expectations; the expected value of the square of the deviations of a random variable from its mean value

variant: varying in from, character, or the like; variable; different; diverse.

variation: act of changing or altering

varied: differed; diversified; various

variety: diversity; quality or condition of being various or varied

various: different; diverse; several; manifold; changeable; uncertain

varnish: deceptively attractive external appearance; paint to coat a surface with a hard, glossy, transparent film

vary: change aspect of; alter in form, appearance, substance, position; make different by a partial change; modify

vast: large; broad; extensive; very great in size, number, amount, or quantity

vault: arched brick or stone ceiling or roof; burial chamber usually underground

vegetable: any of numerous herbaceous plants to eat in meal

vehicle: automobile; means of conveying; medium

veil: a length of cloth worn by women over the head, shoulders, and often the face; cover; hide

vein: blood vessel that carries blood

velocity: rapidity or speed of motion; swiftness

vengeance: punishment inflicted in return for an injury or an offense; retribution

ventilate: freshen; circulate through and freshen

ventilation: act of supplying fresh air and getting rid of foul air

venture: put at risk; adventure

verbal: expressed in spoken rather than written words; consisting of words alone without action

verge: extreme edge or margin; border; enclosing boundary; space enclosed by such a boundary

verify: confirm; prove the truth of by presentation of evidence or testimony

versatile: having many talents; capable of working in many fields

verse: a piece of poetry

version: written work in a new form; edition; interpretation of a particular viewpoint

vertical: upright in position or posture; oriented vertically

vessel: craft; ship; container for liquids

veteran: someone who has given long service

veto: rejection; vote that blocks a decision; deny; prohibit; command against

vex: annoy; disturb, especially by minor irritations; be a mystery or bewildering to

via: by the way of

vibrate: shake, quiver; move or swing from side to side regularly

vibration: act of vibrating; a shaky motion

vice: moral fault or failing; evil, degrading, or immoral practice or habit; physical defect or weakness

vicinity: state of being near in space or relationship; proximity

vicious: by vice or defects; defective; imperfect; having the nature of vice; evil, immoral, or depraved

victorious: successful; being the winner in a contest or struggle

victory: successful ending of struggle or contest; defeat of an enemy or opponent

vigor: active strength of body or mind; imaginative lively style, especially style of writing; exertion of force

vigorous: robust; strong; energetic, and active in mind or body

vine: weak-stemmed plant that derives support from climbing

violate: treat in a violent manner; abuse; do violence to; disturb; interrupt

violence: physical force exerted for the purpose of violating, damaging, or abusing

violent: turbulent; intensely vivid or loud; by violence or bloodshed

violin: small instrument with four strings, played with a bow; a fiddle

virtual: existing or resulting in essence or effect though not in actual fact; existing in mind, especially as a product of imagination

virtually: almost completely; practically; essentially

virtue: goodness, moral excellence; good quality

virus: disease communicator; something that poisons one's soul or mind; program for unwanted actions in computer

viscous: sticky; gluey; having high resistance to flow

visible: being often in public eye; obvious to the eye

vision: ability to see; sight; vivid mental image

visual: seen or able to be seen by the eye; visible; optical

vital: full of life; animated; necessary to continued existence; living or breathing

vivid: bright; lively; graphic; having striking color

vocation: career; profession

vogue: popular fashion; current state or style of general acceptance and use

void: emptiness; containing nothing; clear or empty a place

volcano: fissure in the earth's crust through which molten lava and gases erupt

volley: flight of missiles; round of gunshots; tennis return made by hitting the ball before it bounces

voltage: difference in electrical charge between two points

volume: capacity; amount of space occupied by an object

voluntary: done or undertaken of one's own free will; unforced

volunteer: person who performs or offers to perform a service voluntarily

vote: formal expression of preference for a candidate; number of cast in election; result of election or referendum

voter: a citizen who has a legal right to vote

voucher: a piece of substantiating evidence; proof; written authorization or certificate

vow: solemn promise made to God; promise of fidelity; pledge of love or affection

vowel: speech sound made with the vocal tract open

voyage: long journey to a foreign or distant place, especially by sea; aviation

vulgar: common; low; coarse; belonging or relating to the common people, as distinguished from the cultivated or educated; lacking cultivation or refinement

vulnerable: susceptible to wounds; capable of being wounded or hurt

wade: paddle; walk through relatively shallow water

wag: move one way and the other with quick turns; shake to and fro; move in vibrating; cause to vibrate

wage: hazard on the event of a contest; stake; engage in, as a contest; adventure, or lay out, for hire or reward; hire; employ

wagon: any of various kinds of wheeled vehicles drawn by a horse or tractor

waist: narrowing of the body between the ribs and hips

waive: give up temporarily; yield; give up voluntarily; defer

wake: trail of ship or other object through water; path of something that has gone before

walnut: tree with 10 - 40 meters tall; hard, dark brown wood of any of these trees

wander: move about without a definite destination or purpose; range about; stroll; go away; depart

ward: guard; defender; protector; state under guard; division of a county; division of a hospital

wardrobe: tall cabinet, closet, or small room built to hold clothes

ware: articles of merchandise; style or class of manufactures; especially, in the plural, goods; commodities; merchandise

warehouse: depot; storehouse for goods and merchandise

warfare: military service; military life; contest carried on by enemies

warrant: guarantee; assurance by seller; authorization or certification

warrior: fighter; combatant; one who is engaged in or experienced in battle

waterproof: tight; unaffected by water; made of or covered with material that doesn't allow water in

waver: play or move to and fro; move one way and the other; swing; be unsettled in opinion

wax: increase gradually in size, number, strength, or intensity; show a progressively larger illuminated area

weapon: arms

weary: tired; exhausted; physically or mentally fatigued

weather: endure the effects of weather or other forces; come through safely; survive

weave: pattern or structure by weaving ; knit; interlace

weaver: craftsman who weaves cloth

web: textile fabric; complex, interconnected structure or arrangement; the World Wide Web; radio or television network

wedding: marriage ceremony; act of marrying; anniversary of a marriage

wedge: a piece of metal, or other hard material, thick at one end, and tapering to a thin edge at the other, used in splitting wood, rocks

weed: undesirable or troublesome plant, especially growing where it is not wanted as in a garden.

weld: unite closely or intimately; join together by heating

welfare: benefit; something that aids health or happiness

whereas: considering that; it being the case that; since

whereby: by which; by what; how

whilst: while

whip: overlay with other cords going round and round it; take or move by a sudden motion; clean completely

whirl: act of rotating or revolving rapidly; state of confusion; tumult

whisper: speaking in a quiet voice; soft speech produced without full voice; secretly expressed belief, rumor, or hint

whistle: make a kind of musical sound by lips; emit a similar sound from mouth as birds

wholesale: selling or related to selling goods in large quantities; large-scale; on a large scale without careful discrimination

wholesaler: someone who buys large quantities of goods and resells to merchants

wholesome: conducive to sound health or well-being; beneficial

wicked: evil in principle or practice; contrary to moral or divine law; addicted to vice or sin

widespread: spread or scattered over a considerable extent; occurring or accepted widely

width: extent of something from side to side

wield: handle (a weapon or tool, for example) with skill and ease. exercise effectively; handle; have power over; rule; manage

wilderness: a tract of land, or a region, uncultivated and uninhabited by human beings, whether a forest or a wide, barren plain; wild or desert

willow: trees having usually narrow leaves

winding: twisting or turning; spiral

wisdom: quality of being wise; knowledge ; results of wise judgments

wit: intellect; mental ability; natural ability to perceive and understand

withdraw: remove from; pull back; break from gathering; retreat; depart

withdrawal: secession; retreat or retirement

wither: shrivel; decay; lose freshness, vigor, or vitality; loss of moisture

withhold: refuse to give; refrain from giving, granting, or permitting; deduct from employee's salary

withstand: stand up against; successfully resist; oppose with force or resolution

witness: someone who sees an event and reports what happened; observe; watch

woe: deep, inconsolable grief; affliction; suffering; deep distress or misery, as from grief

woods: small forest; woodland; dense collection of trees covering a relatively small area

wool: dense, soft, often curly hair forming the coat of sheep and certain other mammals

wording: act or style of expressing in words; expression, or power of expression

worldwide: global; universal; throughout the world

worst: be better than; defeat; gain the advantage over

worthwhile: sufficiently valuable

wrap: enclose; arrange or fold as a cover or protection

wrath: forceful, often vindictive anger; fury; just punishment of an offense or crime

wreck: destruction; destroy; smash or break forcefully

wrench: twist or turn suddenly and forcibly; move, extract, or force free by pulling violently

wrestle: contend by grappling with, and striving to trip or throw down an opponent; struggle or strive earnestly

wretched: very miserable; sunk in, or accompanied by deep affliction or distress; calamitous; woeful; worthless

wring: twist; squeeze; compress, especially so as to extract liquid

wrinkle: a minor difficulty; a slight depression in the smoothness of a surface

wrist: joint between the hand and the forearm

yacht: light ship used for private pleasure trips

yard: rod; stick; branch; long piece of timber; measure of length, equaling three feet

yawn: open the mouth wide with a deep inhalation, usually involuntarily from drowsiness, fatigue, or boredom

yearn: pain; grieve; vex; be pained or distressed; feel deep pity, sympathy, or tenderness

yeast: foam, or troth (top yeast), or the sediment (bottom yeast), of beer or other in fermentation

yield: give in; surrender; give forth a natural product; be productive

yoke: join together, unite; harness a draft animal to; join securely; force into heavy labor

yolk: nutritive material; greasy substance found in unprocessed sheep's wool; yellow part of an egg

zeal: intense interest; eagerness to accomplish some object

zealous: enthusiastic; filled with or motivated by zeal

zone: region; portion of the surface of a sphere;

zoology: part of biology which relates to the animal kingdom

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