Monday, 27 May 2013

IELTS 4000 Academic Word List (5)

eager: avid; enthusiastic

earnest: seriousness; reality; fixed determination; eagerness; intentness

earthquake: quake from underground; disturbance that is extremely disruptive; temblor

ease: satisfaction; pleasure; entertainment; freedom from care

eccentric: departing from a recognized, conventional, or established norm or pattern

eccentricity: oddity; departure from that which is stated, regular, or usual; deviation from center

echo: sound reflected from an opposing surface and repeated to the ear; repetition of a sound

eclipse: darken; exceed in importance; outweigh

ecology: science of the relationships between organisms and their environments

economic: pertaining to economy; frugal; cheap

economical: thrifty; saving; using the minimum of time or resources necessary for effectiveness

economics: branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management

economize: save money or resource; cut back; be thrifty

economy: efficient use of resources; reduction in cost; specific type of economic system

ecstasy: intense joy or delight; any overpowering emotion

edge: brink; perimeter; margin

edit: revise and prepare for publication; select, correct, arrange matter of, for publication

edition: whole number of copies of a work printed and published; single copy; act of editing

editorial: of or pertaining to an editor; written or sanctioned by an editor

education: act or process of educating; the result of educating

effective: efficient; productive; producing a strong impression or response

effectiveness: efficiency; quality of being effective

efficiency: effectiveness; quality or property of being efficient; ratio of useful output to the total input in any system

efficient: effective; acting directly to produce an effect; exhibiting a high ratio of output to input

effort: exertion of strength or power, whether physical or mental, in performing an act or aiming at an object

eject: put out or expel from a place; discharge

elaborate: marked by complexity and richness of detail; done with care and in minute detail

elaboration: production by gradual process; act of working out with great care in detail

elapse: slip or glide away; pass away silently

elastic: springing back; having the power of rebounding; able to return quickly to a former state or condition

elasticity: tendency of a body to return to its original shape after it has been stretched or compressed

elbow: hinge joint between the forearm and upper arm

election: voting; balloting; right or ability to make a choice

electrical: pertaining to electricity; electric

electrician: one whose occupation is the installation, maintenance, repair, or operation of electric equipment and circuitry

electron: elementary particle with negative charge

electronic: of or pertaining to an electron or electrons.

electronics: branch of physics that deals with the behavior of electrons; electronic devices

elegance: refined quality of gracefulness and good taste

elegant: refined and tasteful in appearance or behavior or style

element: fundamental or essential constituent of a composite entity; basic assumptions or principles of a subject

elementary: basic; fundamental

elevate: raise; give a promotion to or assign to a higher position

elevation: altitude; height

elevator: lifting device consisting of a platform or cage

eliminate: eradicate; abolish; rule out

elimination: act of removing or getting rid of something

ellipsis: omission of words from text; mark or series of marks used in writing to indicate omission

elliptical: rounded like an egg; in a shape reminding of an ellipse; oval

eloquence: powerful and effective language; persuasive speech

eloquent: vividly or movingly expressive; persuasive

elusive: difficult to describe; difficult to detect or grasp by mind

emancipate: free from bondage, oppression, or restraint; liberate

emancipation: freeing someone from the control of another

embargo: ban on commerce or other activity

embark: commence; go on board a boat or airplane; begin a journey

embarrass: humiliate; shame; cause to feel self-conscious or ill at ease; disconcert

embassy: diplomatic building where ambassadors live or work; diplomatic representatives headed by an ambassador

embody: give a bodily form to; represent in bodily or material form; incorporate

embrace: hug; adopt or espouse; accept readily; hold close with the arms, usually as an expression of affection

embroider: decorate with needlework; add details to

embroidery: elaboration by the use of decorative detail; ornamentation of fabric with needlework

emerge: come into prominence; spring up; appear

emergency: sudden unforeseen crisis; condition of urgent need for action or assistance

emigrant: someone who leaves one country to settle in another

emigrate: remove from one country or State to another, for the purpose of residence; migrate from home

eminent: standing out above other things; high in rank, office, or worth

emission: radiation; discharge; act of emitting

emit: give off; send out; give out as sound

emotion: feeling; mood; state of mental agitation or disturbance

emotional: sentimental; passionate; excitable; easily moved

emphasis: special attention or effort directed toward something; stress

emphasize: stress; underscore; utter or pronounce with a particular stress of voice

empirical: derived from experiment and observation rather than theory

employ: engage the services of; put to work; apply

employee: worker; person who works for another in return for financial or other compensation

employer: a person or firm that employs workers

employment: act of employing or using

empty: containing nothing; not holding or having anything within; void of contents or appropriate contents

enable: supply with the means, knowledge, or opportunity; make able; make feasible or possible

enchant: charm by sorcery; get control of by magical words and rites

encircle: form a circle about; inclose within a circle or ring; surround

enclose: include; surround on all sides; close in

enclosure: place where animals are kept

encounter: face; confront; meet, especially unexpectedly; come upon

encourage: activate; stimulate

endanger: threaten; jeopardize; do something that may damage it or destroy it

endeavor: attempt by employing effort

endless: without end; having no end or conclusion; perpetual; interminable

endorse: acknowledge by signing a bill, draft, or other instrument

endorsement: act of endorsing; support; formal and explicit approval; signature that validates something

endow: grant; award; give qualities or abilities to

endurance: perseverance; state or fact of persevering; continuing existence

endure: tolerate; carry on through, despite hardships

energetic: active; brisk; vigorous

energy: exertion of force; capacity for work or vigorous activity; usable heat or power

enforce: put force upon; force; constrain; compel; put in motion or action by violence

engage: obtain for services of; arrange for the use of; pledge or promise, especially to marry

engagement: act of engaging, pledging, enlisting, occupying, or entering into contest; state of being in gear

engrave: carve or cut into a block or surface, as used for printing; impress deeply as if by carving

engraving: practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it

engulf: absorb or swallow up as in a gulf; flow over or cover completely

enhance: make better or more attractive; increase; improve

enhancement: act of increasing, or state of being increased; augmentation; aggravation

enlighten: supply with light; illuminate, as the sun enlightens the earth; make clear to the intellect or conscience

enormous: very great in size, extent, number, or degrees; huge; massive

enquire: seek information by asking a question

enquiry: search for knowledge

enrich: make rich; richen; improve

enroll: insert in a roil; register or enter in list or catalogue; insert in records; enlist

enrolment: act of enrolling; specifically, the registering, recording, or entering

ensure: make sure or certain; insure; assure

entail: imply or require; cause to ensue or accrue; cut or carve in ornamental way

enterprise: company; firm; organization created for business ventures

entertain: amuse; host

entertainment: amusement; fun

enthusiasm: great excitement for or interest in a subject or cause; feeling of excitement

enthusiastic: having or showing great excitement and interest

entitle: give right to; authorize; furnish with a right or claim to something; designate; give title to

entrance: fill with delight or wonder; put into a trance; attract

entreat: plead; make earnest request of; ask for earnestly

entrust: give over something to another for care, protection, or performance; give as a trust to someone;

entry: admission; entrance; item inserted in a written record

enumerate: list each one; mention one by one

envelop: enclose or encase completely with or as if with a covering

environment: surroundings; totality of surrounding conditions

envy: malice; ill will; discontent or uneasiness at another's excellence or good fortune, accompanied with hatred

epidemic: outbreak of a contagious disease that spreads rapidly and widely; widely prevalent

episode: a brief section of a literary or dramatic work that forms part of a connected series

epoch: particular period of history, especially one considered remarkable

equal: having the same quantity, measure, or value as another; identical

equality: state or quality of being equal

equation: making equal; equal division; equality; equilibrium

equator: the imaginary great circle on the earth's surface, everywhere equally distant from the two poles, and dividing the earth's surface into two hemispheres

equilibrium: mental or emotional balance; state of balance of any causes, powers, or motives

equip: supply with necessities such as tools or provisions; furnish with the qualities necessary for performance

equipment: apparatus

equivalent: interchangeable; comparable; equal, as in value, force, or meaning

eradicate: completely destroy; eliminate; exterminate

erase: rub letters or characters written, engraved, or painted

erect: construct; stand; set up

erosion: corrosion; a gradual decline of something

errand: short trip taken to perform a specified task; mission; embassy

erupt: explode; burst out; become violently active

eruption: outbreak; sudden, often violent outburst

escalator: stairway whose steps move continuously on a circulating belt

escape: act of fleeing from danger, of evading harm, or of avoiding notice; deliverance from injury or any evil

escort: one who conducts someone as attendant; guard; protection, care, or safeguard on a journey

essay: effort made for performance of anything; short literary composition on a single subject

essence: most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience

essential: necessary; critical; vital; constituting or being part of the essence of something

establish: set up or found; build

establishment: act of establishing; ratifying or ordaining; settlement; arranged order or system, especially a legal code

estate: extensive landed property; everything you own; all of your assets

esteem: regard with respect; favorable regard

estimate: judge to be probable; form an opinion about; evaluate

eternal: forever; being without beginning or end; existing outside of time; infinite

evaluate: judge; examine and judge carefully; appraise

evaporate: vaporize; disappear; change into a vapor

evaporation: process of extracting moisture

eventful: busy; momentous; full of events or incidents

eventually: ultimately; in the final result or issue; in the end

everlasting: continuing forever or indefinitely

evidence: something which makes evident or manifest; any mode of proof

evident: easily seen or understood; obvious; apparent; clear

evolution: development; progression

evolve: develop; grow

exact: precisely agreeing with standard, fact, or truth; perfectly conforming

exaggerate: represent as greater than is actually the case; overstate; magnify; do something to an excessive degree

exaggeration: overstatement; act of making something more noticeable than usual

exalt: raise in rank or dignity; praise

exalted: superior; elevated in rank, character, or status; of high moral or intellectual value

exasperate: make worse; irritate; make very angry or impatient; annoy greatly

exceed: go beyond; be or do something to a greater degree

exceedingly: in a very great degree; beyond what is usual; surpassingly

excel: be superior; distinguish oneself

excellent: surpassing others in some good quality or the sum of qualities; of great worth; eminent, in a good sense

exception: instance that does not conform to a rule

exceptional: extraordinary; unusual; well above average

excess: amount or quantity beyond what is normal or sufficient; surplus

excessive: extreme; inordinate; too much

exchange: substitute; trade in; give in return for something received

excite: arouse

excitement: state of being emotionally aroused

exciting: creating or producing excitement

exclaim: cry out suddenly, as from surprise or emotion

exclude: leave out of; keep out of; reject

exclusion: rejection; act of excluding or shutting out

exclusive: not divided or shared with others; excluding much or all; not allowing something else

exclusively: without any others being included or involved; purely; strictly

excursion: trip; usually short journey made for pleasure

excuse: free from blame; clear from guilt; release from a charge; forgive entirely

execute: put into effect; carry out the legalities of

execution: accomplishment; putting into practice; putting a person to death

executive: role of government which makes sure that laws are carried out; administrator

exemplify: serve as an example of; embody

exempt: not subject to duty or obligation; not subject to taxation

exert: cause; apply; exercise

exertion: effort; expenditure of much physical work

exhaust: gases ejected from an engine as waste products ; use up the whole supply of

exhausted: depleted; tired

exhaustion: act of draining out or draining off; act of emptying completely of the contents; state of being exhausted or emptied

exhaustive: treating all parts or aspects without omission; comprehensive

exhibit: show, make visible or apparent

exhibition: exposition; presentation; large-scale public showing

exile: force separation from one's native country

exit: passage or way out; act of going away or out

exonerate: acquit; free from blame; discharge from duty

expand: become larger in size or volume; grow stronger; add details

expansion: growth; extent or amount by which something has expanded

expedient: suitable; appropriate to a purpose; serving to promote your interest

expedite: process fast and efficiently; execute quickly and efficiently

expedition: journey organized for a particular purpose

expel: oust; discharge; force or drive out

expend: lay out, apply, or employ in any way; consume by use; use up or distribute, either in payment or in donations; spend

expenditure: payment or expense; output

expert: person with a high degree of skill in or knowledge of a certain subject

expertise: specialized knowledge; expert skill

expiration: act of coming to a close; termination; act of breathing out; exhalation

expire: come to an end; terminate; lose validity; breathe one's last breath; die

explicit: precisely and clearly expressed; definite; outspoken

explode: erupt; blow up; burst violently as a result of internal pressure

exploit: make use of, sometimes unjustly

exploitation: unfair use of someone’s work giving little in return

exploration: travel for the purpose of discovery

explore: investigate systematically; examine; search

explorer: someone who travels into little known regions

explosive: tending or serving to sudden outburst; sudden and loud

export: sell or transfer abroad

expose: set forth; set out to public view

exposition: exhibition; part of a play that provides the background information; opening section of a fugue

exposure: risk, particularly of being exposed to disease; unmasking; act of laying something open

expressive: demonstrative; indicative

expressly: particularly; specifically; in an explicit manner

exquisite: excellent; flawless; acutely perceptive or discriminating

extend: open or straighten something out; unbend; prolong

extension: supplement; act of extending or the condition of being extended

extensive: widespread; far-reaching; wide

extent: extensive space or area; distance or area over which something extends

exterior: outside; external or outward appearance

external: exterior; outer; suitable for application to the outside

extinct: no longer existing or living; vanished; dead

extinction: death of all its remaining members

extinguish: quench; put out, as a light or fire; cause to die out; put an end to; destroy

extra: something additional of the same kind

extract: draw or pull out, usually with some force or effort; remove; get despite difficulties or obstacles

extraordinary: exceptional; remarkable; beyond what is ordinary or usual

extravagant: wandering beyond one's bounds; exceeding due bounds; wild; excessive; unrestrained

extreme: outermost; utmost; farthest; most remote; at the widest limit

eye: small hole or loop; good discernment; organ of vision or of light sensitivity

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