Monday, 27 May 2013

IELTS 4000 Academic Word List (10)

jail: building for confinement of persons held in lawful custody

jam: crush or bruise; get stuck; press tightly together

jar: pitcher; vase; small, cylindrical container for food, normally made of glass or clay

jealous: resentful or bitter in rivalry; envious

jealousy: envy; jealous attitude or disposition

jelly: substance having the consistency of semi-solid foods

jeopardize: endanger; imperil; put at risk

jerk: pull, or move with a sudden movement; move with abrupt, seemingly uncontrolled motions

jettison: throw overboard; eject from boat, submarine, aircraft, or spaceship

jewel: gemstone; costly ornament of precious metal or gem

jewelry: adornment made of precious metals, as a bracelet or ring or necklace

jog: run or ride at a steady slow trot; give a push or shake to

journal: magazine; periodical; log; diary; a ledger in which transactions have been recorded as they occurred

journalism: profession of reporting or photographing or editing news stories for one of the media

journalist: writer for newspapers and magazines

judgement: decision; appraisal

juice: liquid; liquid part that can be extracted from plant or animal tissue

juicy: full of juice; lucrative; richly interesting

jumble: assemble without order or sense; confused multitude of things; chaos; mess; mixture

junction: connection; joint; intersection; crossing

jungle: land densely overgrown with tropical vegetation; dense, confused mass

junior: less advanced in age than another; younger; lower in standing or in rank

jury: committee appointed to judge a case

justice: quality of being just; practical conformity to human or divine law; equity; uprightness

justifiable: capable of being justified, or shown to be just

justification: good or just reason; condition or fact of being justified

justify: adjust the spaces between words; show to be reasonable; explain, clear away

juvenile: youth; adolescent; not fully grown or developed

kangaroo: animal that having large powerful hind legs and a long thick tail

keen: acute; incisive; sharp ; express grief verbally

kernel: central or vital part; most material and central part; grain or seed as of corn

kerosene: flammable hydrocarbon oil used as fuel in lamps and heaters

keyboard: device consisting of a set of keys on a piano or organ or typewriter or typesetting machine or computer

kidnap: take by force or fear, and against one's will; seize and detain unlawfully and usually for ransom

kidney: glandular organ which excretes urea and other waste products from the animal body

kindle: build or fuel a fire; cause to glow; light up; inspire

kingdom: rank, quality, state, or attributes of a king; royal authority; sovereign power; rule; dominion; monarchy

kneel: bend the knee; fall or rest on the knees

knit: contract into wrinkles; grow together; form into fabric by intertwining

knob: hard protuberance; hard swelling or rising; bunch; lump

knot: fastening together of one or more threads, cords, ropes; lump or loop formed in thread; ornamental tie

label: paper affixed to anything by inscription; slip of ribbon, parchment; writing annexed by way of addition

laborer: worker; someone who works with their hands

lace: delicate decorative fabric woven in an open web of symmetrical patterns; rope; cord that is drawn through eyelets

lag: delay; drag; the act of slowing down or falling behind

lamb: the young of the sheep; simple, unsophisticated person

lame: moving with pain or difficulty because of injury; disabled so that movement is difficult or impossible

landing: touchdown; act of coming down to the earth

landscape: scenery; expanse of scenery that can be seen in a single view

lane: passageway between fences which is not traveled as a highroad; narrow country road

lap: take in food or drink with one's tongue; splash gently

lapse: gliding, slipping, or gradual falling; unobserved or imperceptible progress; slip or error; failing in duty

largely: in a large manner; for the most part; mainly

lark: any of various small, singing passerine birds of the family Alaudidae; one who wakes early; one who is up with the larks

laser: optical device that produces an intense monochromatic beam of coherent light

lasting: continuing or remaining for a long time; enduring; durable

latent: present or potential but not evident or active; dormant; hidden

lateral: coming from side; situated at or extending to the side

latitude: freedom from normal restraints; angular distance north or south of the earth's equator

launch: begin; originate; initiate; send off; take off

laundry: washing; workplace where clothes are washed and ironed

lawn: landscape; grassland, usually tended or mowed; meadow

lay: put into a certain place; cause to lie down; spread over a surface

layer: tier; a relatively thin sheet like expanse or region lying over or under another

layout: overall design of a page; plan or design of something that is laid out

leadership: guidance; direction; authority; position or office of a leader

leading: chief; principal; having a position in the lead; foremost

leaflet: small leaf; leaf like organ or part

league: association; union

leak: escape fluid from container through a hole or crack; tell anonymously; reveal

lean: bend or slant away from the vertical; rely for assistance or support

leap: jump; hop; place jumped over or from

lease: rent; charter; engage for service under a term of contract

lecture: teaching by giving a discourse on some subject; speech that is open to the public

legal: created by, permitted by law; according to the law of works

legend: explanatory list of symbols on a map; unverified story handed down from earlier times

legendary: mythical; fabled; extremely well known; famous or renowned

legislation: lawmaking; the act of making or enacting laws ; law enacted by a legislative body

legitimate: accordant with law; lawful; based on logical reasoning; reasonable

leisure: convenience; vacancy; freedom to choose a pastime or enjoyable activity

lengthen: extend; make or become longer

leopard: large feline of African and Asian forests usually having a tawny coat with black spots

lever: bar, applied to a rotator piece to turn it

levy: impose fine or tax; collect payment

liability: something that holds one back; state of being legally obliged and responsible

liable: bound or obliged in law or equity

liberal: open-minded; tolerant; broad-mindedness; having political views favoring reform and progress

liberate: set free, as from oppression, confinement, or foreign control; discharge; release

liberty: state of free person; exemption from subjection to the will of another; freedom

license: official or legal permission to do or own a specified thing

lick: draw or pass the tongue over; pass or lap quickly and rapidly; beat thoroughly in a competition or fight

lift: direct or carry from a lower to a higher position; raise; transport by air

light: brightness; something that admits illumination; source of fire; particular aspect of a situation

likelihood: possibility, strong probability

likewise: similarly; as well; too

limb: arm; leg; any of the main branches arising from the trunk or a bough of a tree

limestone: rock consisting chiefly of calcium carbonate or carbonate of lime

limousine: any of various large passenger vehicles, especially a luxurious automobile; van or small bus on regular route

limp: walk lamely, especially with irregularity, as if favoring one leg; move or proceed haltingly or unsteadily

line: thin continuous mark, as that made by a pen, pencil, or brush applied to a surface; border or boundary

linear: having form of a line; straight; consisting of lines; lineal.

linen: fabric woven with fibers from the flax plant; thread made from fibers of the flax plant

liner: vessel belonging to a regular line of packets, as ship or plane

linger: be slow in leaving; continue or persist; stay

linguistics: humanistic study of language and literature

link: be or become joined or united; connect, fasten, or put together two or more pieces

liquid: fluid; juice; substance in fluid state

liquor: any liquid, as water, milk, blood, sap, juice; alcoholic or spirituous fluid

list: lean or cause to lean to the side; lean over; itemize

literacy: reading and writing; ability to read and write

literal: according to the letter or verbal expression; exactly as stated

literally: with meaning; word for word; letter by letter

literary: knowledgeable about literature; of or relating to or characteristic of literature

literate: educated; schooled; one who can read and write

literature: imaginative or creative writing, especially of recognized artistic value; art or occupation of a literary writer

litter: make untidy by discarding rubbish carelessly; scatter about

livelihood: subsistence; financial means whereby one lives

lively: busy; energetic; vigorous

liver: large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in upper right chest

livestock: any animals kept for use or profit

load: burden; something which is laid on or put in anything for conveyance; quantity which can be carried or drawn in some specified way

loaf: any thick lump, mass, or cake, especially, a large regularly shaped or molded mass, as of bread

loan: give temporarily; temporary provision of money

lobby: a group of people who try to influence legislation; hall; room; a large entrance or reception room or area

lobster: any large macrurous crustacean used as food

locality: place; district; surrounding or nearby region; particular neighborhood

locate: find; monitor; settle; determine or specify the position or limits o

location: scene; site; place where something is or could be located

lock: strand or cluster of hair; fastening together; a closing of one thing upon another; device operated by a key

locomotive: of or relating to locomotion; a wheeled vehicle consisting of a self-propelled engine

locust: any one of numerous species of long-winged, migratory insects, of the family Acrididae

lodge: small house on the grounds of an estate or a park, used by a caretaker or gatekeeper

lodging: accommodation; lodging

lofty: high, tall, having great height; idealistic, implying over-optimism

log: record of a voyage or flight; record of day to day activities

logic: reasoned and reasonable judgment; a system of reasoning

logical: reasonable; based on known statements or events or conditions

longevity: long life; great duration of life; long duration or continuance, as in an occupation

longitude: an imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth passing through the north and south poles

loom: appear or take shape, usually in enlarged or distorted form

loop: circle; ring; move in loops; make a loop in; join with a loop

loose: unbound; untied; not attached, fastened, fixed, or confined

loosen: make loose or looser; make less severe or strict

lose: fail to keep or to maintain; cease to have; be deprived of; fail to win

lottery: scheme for distribution of prizes by chance; gaming in which tickets bearing particular numbers draw prizes

lounge: public room with seating where people can wait; living room; lobby

low: utter sound made by cattle; make a low noise

loyal: steadfast in allegiance or duty; faithful to a person, ideal, custom, cause, or duty

lubricate: make smooth or slippery

lumber: move heavily or clumsily; cut down timber of

luminous: shining; emitting light, especially emitting self-generated light

lump: a small mass of matter of irregular shape; irregular or shapeless mass; small cube of sugar

lunar: pertaining to the moon; affecting the moon

luxurious: rich and superior in quality; lavish

luxury: something that is an indulgence rather than necessity; excessively expensive

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