Monday, 27 May 2013

IELTS 4000 Academic Word List (9)

ideal: existing in idea or thought; conception; intellectual; mental; imaginary standard of excellence; fit for a model; faultless

identical: duplicate; alike; being the exact same one

identification: act of designating or identifying something; condition of having your identity established

identify: detect; find out; discover

identity: exact sameness; distinct personality of an individual regarded as a persisting entity

idiom: expression whose meaning differs from meanings of its individual words; distinctive style

idiomatic: having the nature of an idiom; characteristic of a given language

idiot: foolish or stupid person; unlearned, ignorant, or simple person

idle: useless; vain; trifling; unprofitable; thoughtless; given rest and ease; avoiding work or employment; lazy

idol: image used for worship; image of divinity; representation or symbol; false notion or conception

ignite: kindle; cause to start burning; set fire to

ignorance: lack of knowledge or education

ignorant: lacking education or knowledge; unaware

ignore: refuse to pay attention to; disregard; overlook; neglect

illegible: incapable of being read; unclear; not legible

illiterate: uncultured; uneducated; not able to read or write

illuminate: provide or brighten with light; clear up or make understandable; enlighten

illusion: misleading vision; being deceived by a false perception or belief

illusive: deceptive; misleading; based on or having the nature of an illusion

illustrate: represent; demonstrate; depict; clarify, as by use of examples or comparisons

illustration: picture; drawing; showing by example

image: visual representation; representation of a person

imaginary: having existence only in the imagination; fanciful; visionary

imitate: copy the actions, appearance, mannerisms, or speech of; mimic; use or follow as a model

imitation: emulation; copying the actions of someone else

immediate: not deferred by an interval of time; present; occurring at once; instant

immediately: proximately; directly; without interval of time; without delay; promptly; instantly; at once

immense: enormous; boundless; so great as to be beyond measurement

immerse: plunge into anything, especially a fluid; sink; dip

immigrant: one who comes to a country where they were not born in order to settle there; non-native

immigrate: move into another country to stay there permanently

immigration: migration into a place; moving into a place

imminent: near at hand; close in time; about to occur

immoral: not moral; contrary to conscience or the divine law; wicked; unjust; dishonest

immortal: not mortal; exempt from liability to die; undying; imperishable; lasting forever

impact: forceful consequence; strong effect; influencing strongly

impart: reveal or tell; grant a share of; bestow

impartial: not biased; fair; showing lack of favoritism

imperative: having power command or control; critically importance; some duty that is essential and urgent

implement: put into effect; supply with tools

implication: something hinted at or suggested; act of implying; condition of being implied

implore: beg for urgently; make an earnest appeal

imply: express or indicate indirectly; signify

import: bring in from another country

impose: demand; force; compel to behave in a certain way

impractical: unwise to implement or maintain in practice; theoretical

impressive: making a strong or vivid impression; producing a strong effect

imprisonment: confinement; putting someone in prison or in jail as lawful punishment

impulse: act of applying force suddenly; an impelling force or strength

inability: lack of ability, especially mental ability, to do something

inaccessible: unreachable; not available; unattainable

inadequate: not sufficient to meet a need; insufficient; poor

inaugurate: start; initiate; induct into office by formal ceremony

incense: enrage; infuriate; cause to be extremely angry

incentive: something, such as the fear of punishment or the expectation of reward

incident: usually minor event or condition that is subordinate to another; event; happening

incidentally: by chance; accidentally

inclination: preference; tendency; inclined surface; slope

incline: cause to lean, slant, or slope; deviate from the horizontal or vertical

inclined: tending or leaning toward; bent; having preference or tendency

inclusive: tending to include all; taking a great deal or everything within its scope

income: gain from labor, business, property, or capital

incompatible: inharmonious; impossible to coexist; not easy to combine harmoniously

inconsistency: state of being self-contradictory; lack of uniformity or steadiness

inconvenient: not suited to your comfort, purpose or needs

incorporate: combine something into a larger whole; unite

incredible: unbelievable; beyond belief or understanding

incredulous: difficult to believe; incredible; skeptical

increment: process of increasing in number, size, quantity, or extent

incur: bring upon oneself; become liable to; acquire or come into

indebted: morally, socially, or legally obligated to another; under a legal obligation to someone

indefinite: unclear; vague; lacking precise limits

indefinitely: endlessly; incessantly; for a long time, no end defined; forever

indent: nick; set in from margin; impress or stamp

independent: not dependent; free; not subject to control by others; not relying on others

index: anything which shows, indicates, manifests, or discloses; prologue indicating what follows; second digit

indicate: point out; direct to a knowledge of

indicative: suggestive; implying; serving to indicate

indifference: unconcern; disinterest; lack of enthusiasm

indifferent: having no particular interest or concern; being neither good nor bad

indigestion: a disorder of digestive function; difficulty in digesting

indignant: affected with indignation; wrathful; passionate; irate; feeling wrath by unworthy or unjust treatment

indignation: anger aroused by something unjust

indispensable: essential; requisite; impossible to be omitted or remitted

individual: single person or thing; human regarded as a unique personality

induce: persuade; bring about; reason or establish by induction

inducement: act of inducing, or the state of being induced; a motive or consideration that leads one to action or induces one to act

indulge: be complacent toward; give way to; not to oppose or restrain; yield to the desire of

industrial: of or relating to or resulting from industry; having highly developed industries

industrialization: development of industry on an extensive scale

industrialized: made industrial; converted to industrialism

industrious: diligent; hard-working; busy and laborious

inertia: property of matter by which it tends when at rest to remain so, and when in motion to continue in motion, and in the same straight line or direction

inevitable: unavoidable; incapable of being avoided or prevented

inevitably: unavoidably; in a manner that is impossible to avoid or prevent

infant: child in the first period of life; young babe

infantry: body of children; a body of soldiers serving on foot; foot soldiers

infect: bring into contact with a substance that can cause illness

infection: moral corruption or contamination; invasion of body which can lead to tissue damage and disease

infectious: contagious; contaminating

infer: deduce; conclude from evidence or premises; lead to as a consequence or conclusion

inference: inferring by deduction or induction; truth or proposition drawn from another which is admitted or supposed to be true; conclusion; deduction

inferior: poor; lower than a given reference point; low or lower in order, degree, or rank

inferiority: state of being lower than or not as good as

infinite: unlimited or boundless, in time or space; without limit in power, capacity, knowledge, or excellence

infinity: unlimited extent of time, space, or quantity; eternity; boundlessness; immensity

inflation:  general increase in the prices of goods and services in a country

inflict: impose something unpleasant; cause

influence: power affecting person or thing; effect of one thing on another; flowing in or upon; influx

influential: important; powerful; having or exercising influence or power

influenza: an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease

inform: impart information to; make aware of something; be a pervasive presence in; animate

informal: absence of ceremony; casual

informative: instructive; illustrative; providing or conveying information

infringe: act contrary to, as a law, right, or obligation; annul or hinder

ingenious: clever; having inventive or cunning mind

ingenuity: quality or power of ready invention; quickness or acuteness in forming new combinations

inhabit: live in; occupy; reside in

inhabitant: resident; someone or thing who lives in a place

inherent: firmly established by nature or habit

inherit: receive from an ancestor by legal succession or will; receive by bequest or as a legacy

initial: early; preliminary; occurring at the beginning

initially: in the beginning; at first

initiate: begin; originate; admit into membership

initiative: serving to initiate; introductory step or movement; act which originates or begins

inject: put in; infuse ; force or drive fluid into something

injure: do harm to; inflict damage; do injustice to

injury: any physical damage to body caused by violence or accident or fracture

injustice: unjust act; practice of being unjust or unfair

inland: within the land; more or less remote from the ocean or from open water; interior

innocent: naive; lacking sense or awareness; free from evil or guilt

innovate: change or alter by bringing in something new

innovation: introduction of something new

innumerable: countless; numerous

inquire: ask a question; seek for truth or information by putting queries

inquiry: investigation; search for knowledge

insane: exhibiting disordered of mind; deranged in mind; very foolish

insert: input; enter; put or set into, between, or among

insider: an accepted member of a group; one who has special knowledge or access to confidential information

insight: understanding; grasping the inner nature of things intuitively

insignificant: not large enough to consider or notice; lacking in importance; trivial

insist: stand or rest; find support; take a stand and refuse to give way; be persistent

insolvent: bankrupt; unable to repay one's debts

inspect: look over; examine carefully and critically, especially for flaws

inspection: formal or official examination

inspector: high ranking police officer; investigator who observes carefully

inspiration: sudden intuition as part of solving a problem; arousing to a particular emotion or action

inspire: encourage; inspirit; fire the imagination of

install: set up; connect or set in position and prepare for use

installation: act of installing or giving possession of an office, rank, or order, with the usual rites or ceremonies; the whole of a system of machines, apparatus, and accessories

installment: monthly payment; a part of a published serial

instance: example that is cited to prove a contention or illustrate a point; case or occurrence

instinct: inborn pattern of behavior ; nature

instinctive: unthinking; prompted by instinct; spontaneous

institute: advance or set forth in court; association organized to promote art or science or education

institution: institute; organization; introducing something new

instruct: teach; make aware of

instruction: direction; teaching; activities of educating or instructing

instructive: serving to instruct of enlighten or inform; enlightening

instrument: tool; one used by another to accomplish a purpose; device used to produce music; legal document

instrumental: serving or acting as a means or aid; helpful; relating to musical instruments

insufficient: of a quantity not able to fulfill a need or requirement

insulate: make an island of; place in a detached situation, or in a state having no communication with surrounding objects; isolate; separate

insulation: act of insulating; separation; state of being detached, from other objects

insult: offend; affront; treat, mention, or speak to rudely

insurance: protection against future loss; act, business, or system of insuring

insure: make sure or secure, specifically against loss by a contingent event; give or take insurance on

intangible: not able to be perceived by senses, as touch; vague

integral: essential or necessary for completeness; entire

integrate: make whole; combine; make into one unit

integrity: quality or condition of being whole or undivided; completeness

intellect: ability to learn and reason; ability to think abstractly or profoundly

intellectual: of intellect; showing intellect; requiring the use of the mind, rather than emotions or instinct

intelligence: ability to comprehend; understand and profit from experience; intellect; power of cognition

intelligent: ingenious; wise; bright; having a high degree of intelligence; mentally acute

intense: extreme; acute; in an extreme degree

intensive: thorough; concentrated; tending to give force or emphasis

intent: something that is intended; aim or purpose

intention: motive; with respect to marriage; aim that guides action

interact: interplay; act together or towards others or with

interaction: communication; a mutual or reciprocal action; interacting

interest: attention; curiosity; dividend; yield

interfere: disrupt; hinder; be or create a hindrance or obstacle

interference: obstruction; prevention; act or an instance of hindering, obstructing, or impeding

interior: inside; inner part; internal; inner

intermediate: middle; lying between two extremes

internal: inside; interior; located within the limits or surface

interpret: explain or tell the meaning of; translate orally; decipher

interpretation: explanation; performer's distinctive personal version of a song, dance, piece of music

interrupt: terminate; make a break in

interval: pause; break; space between two objects, points, or units

intervene: get involved; come, appear, or lie between two things

intimate: give to understand; imply as a possibility; make known subtly and indirectly

intrude: trespass; enter as an uninvited person

inundate: overwhelm; cover with water, especially floodwaters

invade: move into; intrude; enter by force in order to conquer or pillage

invader: one who invades; assailant; encroacher; intruder

invalid: of no force or weight; not valid; weak; void; null

invalidate: make invalid; nullify; destroy

invaluable: valuable under estimation; inestimable; priceless

invariably: constantly; always

invasion: raid; attack; act of invading, especially the entrance of an armed force into a territory to conquer

inverse: opposite; reversed in order, nature, or effect; turned upside down

invest: put clothe on, as with office or authority; place in possession of rank, dignity, or estate; endow; lay out money or capital in business

investigate: explore; observe or inquire into in detail; examine systematically

investigation: detailed inquiry or systematic examination; inquiry

invisible: incapable of being seen; impossible or nearly impossible to see

invoice: bill; commercial document issued by seller to buyer indicating the products, quantities and prices

involve: wind round; connect with something; include necessarily; engage thoroughly

irony: expression by deliberate contrast between apparent and intended meaning; witty language used to insult

irregular: contrary to rule or accepted order or general practice; inconstant

irresistible: overwhelming; tempting; charming

irrespective: without regard for conditions, circumstances, or consequences; unbiased; independent

irrevocable: unalterable; irreversible; impossible to retract or revoke

irrigate: supply land with water artificially; clean a wound with a fluid

irrigation: supplying water to the land to help crops grow

irritate: rouse to impatience or anger; annoy; provoke

isolate: seclude; set apart or cut off from others

isolation: separation; detachment; quality or condition of being isolated

issue: subject; topic; problem; edition; publication; release; publish

item: a whole individual unit; a distinct part that can be specified separately in a group

ivory: teeth of elephant

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