Monday, 27 May 2013

IELTS 4000 Academic Word List (12)

naked: bare and pure; completely unclothed

namely: by name; by particular mention; expressly; that is to say

nap: a period of time spent sleeping

narrator: someone who tells a story

nasty: very dirty, foul; disgusting; nauseous

native: being as origin; as found in nature in the elemental form

nausea: feeling of sickness in stomach by an urge to vomit; strong aversion; disgust

naval: relating to, or adjacent to the sea; relating to marine shipping or navigation

navigable: wide and deep enough to allow ships to pass through; able to be steered

navigation: guidance of ships or airplanes from place to place

neat: clean or orderly

necessitate: make necessary or indispensable; render unavoidable

needle: long, thin, sharp implement usually for piercing such as sewing, or knitting

needy: poor; indigent; being in need; impoverished

negate: cancel out; make ineffective or invalid; deny

negation: act of denying; assertion of the nonrealistic or untruthfulness of anything

negative: adverse; involving disadvantage or harm; pessimistic

neglect: disregard; ignore; pay little or no attention to

negligence: neglect; failure to take reasonable care; state or quality of being negligent

negligent: careless; inattentive

negligible: so small, trifling, or unimportant that it may be easily disregarded

negotiable: capable of being negotiated; transferable by assignment or endorsement to another person

negotiation: discussion intended to produce an agreement

nervous: agitated; anxious

network: any system of lines or channels crossing like the fabric of a net; complex, interconnected group or system

neutral: impartial; not supporting one side over another

neutron: elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton

nevertheless: not the less; notwithstanding; in spite of that; yet

nickel: coin worth one twentieth of a dollar

nightmare: dream arousing feelings of intense fear, horror, and distress; event or experience that is intensely distressing

nitrogen: colorless nonmetallic element, tasteless and odorless, comprising four fifths of the atmosphere by volume

nobility: quality or state of being noble; superiority of mind or of character; commanding excellence; eminence

noisy: full of loud and nonmusical sounds; clamorous

nominal: in name only; insignificantly small

nominate: designate; appoint

nomination: act of naming or nominating; designation of a person as a candidate for office

nonsense: silliness; words or signs having no intelligible meaning

norm: convention; standard; rule

normally: usually; as a rule; regularly; according to a rule

notable: worthy of note or notice; remarkable; important

notably: especially; in a notable manner; remarkably; particularly

note: observe carefully; notice; show; indicate

notify: make known; give notice to; inform by notice

notion: general or universal conception; belief or opinion

notorious: disreputable; known widely and usually unfavorably; infamous

notwithstanding: nevertheless; in spite of

nought: nonexistence; nothingness; zero

nourish: provide with nourishment; provide with food or other substances necessary for life and growth

nourishment: a source of materials to nourish the body

novel: previously unknown; strikingly new, unusual, or different; young

novelty: quality of being novel; newness; something new and unusual

nowadays: during current time; presently

nowhere: not anywhere; not in any place or state

nuclear: of, relating to, or forming a nucleus of an atom; pertaining to, or using nuclear weapons

nucleus: central or essential part around which other parts are gathered or grouped; core

nuisance: something that annoys or gives trouble and vexation; something that is offensive or noxious

null: invalid; void; nullified; having no legal force; invalid

nullify: make invalid; make null; invalidate; counteract force or effectiveness of

numerical: belonging to number; denoting number; consisting in numbers; expressed by numbers, and not letters

numerous: many; various; amounting to a large indefinite number

nursery: room for baby; area in a household set apart for the use of children

nylon: any of a family of high-strength, resilient synthetic polymers

oak: any tree or shrub of the genus Quercus; durable wood of any of these trees or shrubs

oar: long, thin, usually wooden pole with a blade at one end, used to row or steer a boat

oath: solemn promise; commitment to tell the truth

obedient: subject in will or act to authority; willing to obey; submissive to restraint, control, or command

object: be averse to or express disapproval of

objection: act of expressing earnest opposition or protest

objective: not influenced by emotions; having actual existence or reality

obligation: act of binding oneself by a social, legal, or moral tie; written promise to repay a debt

oblige: force; bind by an obligation; cause to be indebted; do a service or favor for

obliterate: destroy completely; do away with completely so as to leave no trace

oblong: having greater length than breadth, especially when rectangular

obscure: darken; make dim or indistinct; conceal in obscurity

observance: act or practice of observing or noticing with attention; an act, ceremony, or rite, as of worship or respect

observe: be on the watch respecting; pay attention to; notice with care; see; perceive

obstacle: one that opposes, stands in the way of, or holds up progress

obstinate: stubbornly adhering to an attitude or opinion; hard to control or treat

obstruction: act of obstructing; any structure that makes progress difficult

obtain: get hold of; gain possession of; acquire, in any way

obtainable: available; capable of being obtained

obvious: exposed; easily discovered; plain

occasion: significant event that occurs at a critical time; opportunity to do something; event or happening

occasional: random; occurring from time to time; infrequent

occasionally: now and then; from time to time; infrequently; irregularly

occupation: act of occupying or taking possession; control of a country by military forces of a foreign power

occupy: inhabit; live in a certain place; be present in; be inside of

occur: take place; be found to exist ; come to one's mind

occurrence: an event that happens

odd: not easily explained; beyond from the usual or expected; not divisible by two

odour: any smell, whether fragrant or offensive; scent; perfume

offence: act of causing anger, resentment, displeasure, or affront; violation or infraction of moral or social code

offend: strike against; attack; assail; make angry; affront

offensive: causing anger, displeasure, resentment, or affront

offer: act of presenting; something, such as a suggestion, proposal, bid, or recommendation

offset: counterbalance, counteract, or compensate for; balance

offspring: descendant

omen: any indication or action regarded as a foreshowing; phenomenon supposed to portend good or evil

ominous: threatening; foreshadowing evil or tragic developments

omission: act of omitting; neglect or failure to do something required by propriety or duty

omit: leave undone or leave out ; bypass; neglect; fail to include or mention

onset: beginning or early stages; offensive against enemy

opaque: impenetrable by light; not transparent; not reflecting light; having no luster

opera: a drama set to music and consists of singing

operative: having power of acting; exerting force, physical or moral; active in the production of effects

opinion: notion or conviction founded on probable evidence; belief stronger than impression; favorable estimation

opponent: contestant; someone who offers opposition ; adverse; hostile; opposing

opportune: timely; just in time; suited or right for a particular purpose

opportunity: favorable or advantageous circumstance; chance for progress or advancement

oppose: place in front of, or over against; set opposite; exhibit; confront; resist; withstand

opposite: two words that express opposing concepts; contrariwise; directly facing each other

opposition: condition of being in conflict; act of opposing something

optical: of or relating to or involving light or optics

optimal: most advantageous; optimum; ideal

optimism: tendency to expect the best possible outcome; belief that the universe is improving and good will win over evil

optimistic: hopeful; positive; expecting the best in all possible ways

optimum: most favorable or advantageous

option: act of choosing; power or freedom to choose

optional: not obligatory; left to choice; not compulsory or automatic

oral: spoken; unwritten; relating to the mouth

orbit: path; circle; move in an orbit; encircle

orchard: garden; area of land devoted to the cultivation of fruit or nut trees

orchestra: band

orderly: conformed to order; in order; regular; well-regulated

ore: mineral that contains metal that is valuable enough to be mined

organ:  natural part or structure in animal or plant, capable of performing some special action

organic: simple and healthful and close to nature

organism: living being; system considered analogous in structure or function to a living body

orient: focus toward; determine position with reference to another point; locate to face the east

oriental: of or relating to the countries of the orient or their peoples or cultures; eastern

orientation: act of finding oneself position; position or alignment relative to points of directions; course introducing new situation

origin: the first existence or beginning of anything; birth; fountain

original: not second hand; not copied or translated from something else

originality: novelty; creativity; capacity to act or think independently

originate: initiate; invent; bring into being; create

ornament: decoration; something used to beautify

ornamental: decorative; any plant grown for its beauty or ornamental value

ounce: unit of weight equal to one sixteenth of a pound

outbreak: beginning; eruption; explosion

outcome: result; end or consequence; result of a random trial

outdoors: out of house; out of doors

outermost: far most; utmost; outmost; most distant from the center or inside

outlandish: unconventional; strikingly unfamiliar; located far from civilized areas

outlaw: person excluded from the benefit of the law, or deprived of its protection; fugitive from the law; habitual criminal

outlet: an opening that permits escape or release; activity that releases creative energy or emotion

outline:  line that appears to bound an object

outlook: prospect; view; belief about the future ; act of looking out

output: act or process of producing; production; amount produced during a certain time

outrage: act of extreme violence or viciousness; offense

outrageous: of the nature of an outrage; exceeding the limits of right, reason

outright: altogether; entirely; without reservation or exception

outset: beginning; start; origin; time at which something is supposed to begin

outstanding: distinguished from others in excellence

oval: elliptic; rounded like an egg

overall: general; comprehensive; from one end to the other; including everything

overcast: covered or obscured, as with clouds or mist; gloomy; melancholy

overcharge: overprice; a price that is too high

overcome: defeat another in competition or conflict; conquer; prevail over

overestimate: make too high an estimate of

overflow: flow over; cover with, or as with, water or other fluid; spread over; flow over the brim of

overhear: hear more of anything than was intended to be heard; hear again

overlap: representation of common ground between two things; extend over and cover a part of

overlapping: covering with a design in which one element covers a part of another

overload: place too much a load on

overlook: ignore; disregard; fail to notice ; watch over

overseas: beyond or across the sea; abroad

oversight: unintentional omission or mistake; watchful care or management; supervision

overtake: come up with in a course, pursuit, progress, or motion; catch up with; come upon from behind; capture; overcome

overthrow: throw over; overturn; upset; turn upside down; cause to fall or to fail

overtime: beyond the regular time

overwhelm: defeat; cover completely or make imperceptible; overcome by superior force ; charge someone with too many tasks

overwhelming: overpowering in effect or strength; very great or intense; extreme

owe: be in debt; be obliged to pay or repay

owl: any species of raptorial birds of the family Strigidae

own: belonging to oneself or itself; not foreign; domestic

ownership: having and controlling property

oxide: binary compound of oxygen with an atom or radical, or a compound which is regarded as binary

oxygen: a nonmetallic bivalent element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless nonflammable diatomic gas

oyster: marine mollusks having a rough irregular shell

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