Monday, 27 May 2013

IELTS 4000 Academic Word List (3)

cab: taxi; one-horse vehicle for public hire

cabin: small room on a ship or boat where people sleep

cabinet: group of persons appointed by a head of state or a prime minister; hut; cottage; small house; small room; closet

cable: very strong thick rope made of twisted steel or metal wire

cafe: coffee house; restaurant where coffee and liquors are served

cafeteria: restaurant where you serve yourself and pay a cashier

calculate: compute; determine; estimate

calculation: planning something carefully and intentionally

calendar: orderly arrangement as years, months, weeks, and days; a table showing months, weeks, and days

calm: freedom from motion, agitation, or disturbance; tranquility; stillness; quiet; serenity

calorie: unit of heat; unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree

campaign: battle ;a series of actions advancing a principle or tending toward a particular end

campus: field where the buildings of a university are situated

canal: artificial channel filled with water; tube or duct

canary: pale yellowish color; wine made in the Canary Islands; canary bird; quick and lively dance

cancel: revoke; call off; omit or delete

cancellation: act of cancelling; calling off some arrangement

candid: straightforward; frank; free from prejudice; impartial

candidate: person who is considered for something; person who seeks or is nominated for an office, prize, or honor

cane: any plant with long, hard, elastic stems; walking stick

cannon: great gun; firearm for discharging heavy shot with great force

canon: law or rule; decision, regulation, code, or constitution made by ecclesiastical authority; books of the Bible officially accepted; a group of literary works

canteen: vessel used by soldiers for carrying water, liquor, or other drink; snack bar or small cafeteria, as on a military installation

canvas: heavy closely woven fabric; background against which events unfold, as in a historical narrative

canvass: determine votes; examine carefully or discuss thoroughly; scrutinize

capability: quality of being capable; capacity; skill

capable: having the ability required for a specific task

capacity: mental or physical ability; ability to accommodate

cape: piece or point of land, extending beyond the adjacent coast into the sea or a lake; sleeveless outer garment

capital: wealth in form of money or property; assets available for use; city that is the official seat of government

caption: title; chapter heading; text under illustration

captive: prisoner taken by force; one kept in power of another; one charmed or subdued by beauty, excellence, or affection

capture: act of seizing by force, or getting possession of by superior power; thing taken by force, surprise, or stratagem

card: flat, rectangular piece of stiff paper, cardboard, or plastic; business card; credit card

cardinal: chief; serving as an essential component

career: profession or occupation; individual’s work and life roles over their lifespan

careful: full of care; anxious; solicitous; taking care; giving good heed; watchful; cautious

careless: negligent; taking insufficient care

cargo: freight carried by a ship, an aircraft, or another vehicle

carol: round dance; a song of joy; song of praise or joy, especially for Christmas

carpenter: skilled worker who makes, finishes, and repairs wooden objects and structures

carrier: one that carries or conveys; messenger

carrot: root of cultivated varieties of the plant, usually spindle-shaped, and of a reddish yellow color

carry: convey or transport in any manner from one place to another; hold or support while moving; bear

cart: common name for various kinds of vehicles; two-wheeled vehicle; light business wagon

carton: pasteboard for paper boxes; pasteboard box

cartoon: design or study drawn of full size to serve as a model for transferring or copying; drawing depicting a humorous situation

carve: cut; sculpt

carving: cutting away parts to create a desired shape

cash: money paid at the time of purchase; money in the form of bills or coins; currency

cashier: one who has charge of money; cash keeper

cassette: container that holds a magnetic tape used for recording or playing sound or video

cast: assign the roles of; choose at random

casual: informal; purposeless; occurring by chance

casualty: serious or fatal accident; someone injured or killed in an accident

catalyst: agent which brings about chemical change while it remains unaffected and unchanged

catastrophe: calamity; disaster; state of extreme ruin and misfortune

catch: capture or seize, especially after a chase; take by or as if by trapping; reach just in time

category: group; class; collection of things sharing a common attribute

cater: supply what is needed or desired; provide food professionally for special occasion

cathedral: church; temple

catholic: broadly sympathetic; universal; related to Roman Catholic Church

cause: something produces a result; basis for an action or response; a reason

caution: care; being attentive to possible danger

cautious: conservative; careful

cavalry: part of military force which serves on horseback

cavern: cave; large underground chamber, as in a cave

cavity: hole; cavern; hollow area within the body

cease: stop; terminate; put an end to; discontinue

celebrate: praise; assign great social importance to

cell: any small compartment

cellar: room or rooms under a building, and usually below the surface of the ground

cement: any substances used for making bodies adhere to each other; bond of union

cemetery: place or ground set apart for the burial of the dead; graveyard

censor: overseer of morals; official responsible for removal of objectionable or sensitive content

centigrade: measure of temperature, used widely in Europe

cereal: grass such as wheat, oats, or corn, the starchy grains of which are used as food.

ceremonial: ritual; ceremony or rite

ceremony: formal act or set of acts performed as prescribed by ritual or custom

certainty: quality or condition of being certain; fact or truth unquestionable established; clearness

certificate: document attesting to the truth of certain stated facts; document issued to a person completing a course

certify:  give certain information to; assure; make certain

chalk: soft, earthy substance, of a white, grayish, or yellowish white color, used as a drawing implement

challenge: assert a right; raise a formal objection; take exception to

chamber: cell; compartment; room

champion: protect or fight for as first place

championship: status of being a champion; position or title of a winner

channel: passage for water or other fluids to flow through; bed of a stream or river; route of communication or access

chaos: disorder; condition or place of great disorder or confusion; disorderly mass

chap: crack, as in earth surface; splitting of skin, caused by cold or exposure; one of the jaws or cheeks; man or boy

chapter: division of a book or treatise; assembly of monks; bishop's council; organized branch of some society

character: part; nature; description of a person's attributes, traits, or abilities

characteristic: feature that helps to identify, tell apart, or describe recognizably; a distinguishing mark or trait

characterize: distinguish; be characteristic of; be a distinctive trait or mark of

charcoal: a stick of black carbon material used for drawing; a very dark gray color

charge: set or ask for a certain price; load to capacity; fill; instruct or urge authoritatively; command

charity: activity or gift that benefits the public at large

charm: power or quality of pleasing or delighting; attractiveness; item worn for its supposed magical benefit

chart: graph; diagram; map showing coastlines, water depths, or other information of use to navigators

charter: license; authorize; hold under a lease or rental agreement of goods and services

chase: pursue for the purpose of killing or taking; hunt; follow as if to catch

chat: talk without exchanging too much information; informal conversation

check: stop motion; curb or restrain

cheer: lightness of spirits or mood; source of joy or happiness; festive food and drink; refreshment

cheque: written order directing a bank to pay money

cherish: harbor; treasure; treat with affection and tenderness; hold dear

chew: bite and grind with the teeth

chief: highest in office or rank; principal; head

chill: cool; freeze

chilly: cold

chin: central forward portion of the lower jaw; bottom of face

chip: cut small pieces from; diminish or reduce to shape; break or crack

choke: breathe with great difficulty, as when experiencing a strong emotion; reduce the air supply

chop: hew; cut by striking with a heavy sharp tool, such as an ax

chorus: any utterance produced simultaneously by a group

circle: round; something shaped like such a ring; group of people sharing an interest, activity, or achievement

circuit: electrical device that provides a path for electrical current to flow

circular: round; shaped like or nearly like a circle

circulate: move through a space, circuit or system, returning to the starting point

circulation: spread or transmission of something to a wider group or area

circumference: boundary line of a circle, figure, area, or object

circumstance: situation; condition; detail accompanying or surrounding an event

circus: public entertainment of performances by acrobats, clowns, and trained animals

cite: quote; adduce as an instance

citizenship: status of a citizen with rights and duties

civil: having to do with citizens or the state; courteous and polite

civilization: culture

claim: demand for something as rightful or due

clamp: any of various devices used to join, grip, support, or compress mechanical or structural parts

clap: applaud; slap; strike together with a sharp sound, as one hard surface on another

clarification: process of making things clearer or easier to understand

clarify: make clear and comprehensible; elucidate

clash: make noise by striking against something; dash noisily together; meet in opposition

clasp: fastening device; firm grip

classic: work of acknowledged excellence and authority, or its author; creation of the highest excellence

classical: of recognized authority or excellence

classification: assigning to a class or category

classify: declare unavailable, as for security reasons; arrange or order by classes or categories

clause: sentence; phrase; distinct article, stipulation, or provision in a document

clay: very fine-grained soil that is plastic when moist but hard when fired

clear: out of the way; completely away

clearance: act of clearing; space cleared; permission to proceed or trust

clench: close tightly; grasp or grip tightly; fasten with a clinch

client: someone who pays to get goods or services

clientele: clients of professional person; body of customers or patrons

climate: weather condition; atmosphere; environment

climax: upward movement; steady increase; the highest point; the greatest degree

cling: hold fast or adhere to something; stick together and resist separation; remain emotionally

clinic: healthcare facility for outpatient care

clip: small section of filmed or filed material

clockwise: in the direction that the hands of a clock move

closet: small room or apartment; room for privacy

clue: a ball of thread or cord; thread; something guides or directs anything of a doubtful or intricate nature

clumsy: awkward; showing lack of skill or aptitude

cluster: group; bunch; group of the same or similar elements gathered or occurring closely

clutch: grasp and hold tightly; attempt to grasp or seize

coach: tutor; teacher; a vehicle carrying many passengers

coarse: rough; harsh; of low, common, or inferior quality

code: body of law; system of rules or regulations relating to one subject; system of symbols, letters, or words

codify: arrange laws, rules as a code; classify; arrange or systematize

coherence: logical and orderly and consistent relation of parts; state of cohering or sticking together

coherent: adhesive; cohesive; sticking together ; logical; sound; capable of thinking and expressing yourself in a clear and consistent manner

cohesion: tendency to keep together

cohesive: cohering or tending to cohere; well integrated

coil: a series of connected spirals or concentric rings formed by gathering or winding; spiral pipe or series of spiral pipes

coin: make pieces of money from metal; invent or fabricate

coinage: coins collectively

coincide: occur at the same time as; correspond

coincidence: two or more things occurring at the same time by chance

coincident: concerning; simultaneous

collaborate: work together, especially in a joint intellectual effort

collaboration: act of working together; act of cooperating with an enemy, especially it occupying one's own country

collapse: breakdown; failure

colleague: fellow worker; associate; co-worker

collective: common; assembled into or viewed as a whole

collide: bump; hit; conflict

collision: crash; conflict of opposed ideas or attitudes or goals

colonel: a commissioned military officer

colonial: of or relating to or characteristic of or inhabiting a colony

colony: region politically controlled by a distant country; a dependency; a community of social insects, as ants, bees

column: pillar; cylindrical or polygonal support for roof; anything resembling, in form or position; upright body or mass

combat: struggle as with an opposing force; fight with

combination: blend; union

combine: blend; fuse; merge

comedy: light and humorous drama with a happy ending

comic: arousing or provoking laughter; ridiculous; amusing; humorous

commander: chief; leader

commandment: order or injunction given by authority; command; charge; act of commanding; exercise of authority

commemorate: serve as a memorial to; honor the memory of with a ceremony

commence: have a beginning or origin; originate; start; begin

commend: commit, intrust, or give in charge for care or preservation; recommend as worthy of confidence or regard

comment: express an opinion; remark

commerce: trade; business; intellectual exchange or social interaction

commercial: money-making; involved in work that is intended for the mass market

commission: fee for services; group of people appointed to find out about something; authorize

commit: do something that cannot be changed; cause to be admitted

commitment: pledge, undertaking; act of binding yourself to a course of action

committee: special group delegated to consider some matter

commodity: goods; article of trade; advantage; benefit.

commonplace: ordinary; having no remarkable features

commonsense: exhibiting native good judgment

communicate: send information about; make known; impart; reveal clearly

communication: activity of communicating; activity of conveying information

community: society; a group of people living in the same locality and under the same government

compact: closely and firmly united or packed together; briefly giving gist of something

companion: associate; partner

company: team; guard team; group of persons; business enterprise

comparable: similar or equivalent; being of equal regard; worthy to be ranked with

comparative: relative; based on, or involving comparison

comparatively: relatively; in comparison

compare: examine and note the similarities or differences of

compass: go about or entirely round; make the circuit of; enclose on all sides; surround

compatible: harmonious; having similar disposition and tastes

compel: force; coerce; necessitate or pressure by force

compensate: make amends for; reimburse

compensation: something given or received as payment as for a service or loss or injury

compete: contest; fight

competent: capable; adept

competition: struggle; rivalry; act of competing as for profit or a prize

competitive: of or pertaining to competition; producing competition; showing a fighting disposition

competitiveness: an aggressive willingness to compete

competitor: one who seeks what another seeks, or claims what another claims; one who competes; rival

compile: put together or compose from materials gathered from several sources

complain: make a formal accusation; bring a formal charge

complaint: expression of pain, dissatisfaction, or resentment; criticism

complement: complete; consummate; make perfect

complex: complicated in structure; a whole structure, as a building, made up of interconnected or related structures

complexity: complication

compliance: readiness to yield; happy friendly agreement

complicated: difficult to analyze or understand

compliment: praise; commendation; say something to someone that expresses praise

complimentary: expressing of praise, admiration, or congratulation; given free to repay a favor or as an act of courtesy

comply: yield assent; accord; agree, or acquiesce; adapt one's self; fulfill; accomplish

component: element; ingredient; abstract part of something

compose: write; create; make or create by putting together parts or elements

composite: made up of distinct parts or elements; compounded

composition: makeup; constitution; writing; essay

compound: combine; mix; constitute; pay interest; increase

comprehend: take in the meaning, nature, or importance of; grasp

comprehension: grasp; ability to understand

comprehensive: thorough; including all or everything; broad in scope

compress: close; squeeze or press together; contract

compression: applying pressure; encoding information while reducing the bandwidth or bits required

comprise: include; consist of; be composed of

compromise: adjust or settle by making mutual concessions; endanger the interests or reputation of

compulsory: mandatory; obligatory; required by rule

computation: calculation

compute: reckon; make mathematical calculation

conceal: keep from being seen, found, observed, or discovered; secrete

concede: admit; yield; give up physical control of another

conceit: overly high self-esteem; feelings of excessive pride

conceited: endowed with fancy or imagination; entertaining a flattering opinion of one's self; vain

conceive: form or develop in the mind; devise; become pregnant with; begin or originate in a specific way

concentrate: bring to or direct toward a common center; unite more closely; gather into one body

concept: something formed in the mind; thought or notion

conception: beginning; forming of an idea; act of conceiving

concern: interest in any person or thing; regard; solicitude; anxiety

concert: performance of music by players or singers not involving theatrical staging; harmony; accord

concerted: planned or accomplished together; combined

concession: act of yielding; point yielded; acknowledgment or admission

concise: brief and compact; expressing much in few words

conclude: enclose; reach as an end of reasoning; make final determination ; judge or decide; bring to an end

conclusive: definitive; decisive; final

concrete: solid mass; covering with cement; hard, strong construction material consisting of sand, conglomerate , and gravel

concurrent: simultaneous; coincident; occurring or operating at the same time

condemn: blame; denounce; express strong disapproval of

condemnation: blame

condensation: compression

condense: change from a gaseous to a liquid state and fall in drops; compress or concentrate

condenser: lens used to concentrate light on an object; an apparatus that converts vapor into liquid

condition: mode or state of being; fitness; existing circumstances

conduct: direct the course of; manage or control; lead or guide

conductor: a device designed to transmit electricity, heat; person who collects fares on a public conveyance

cone: a shape whose base is a circle and whose sides taper up to a point

confer: bestow; present; have a conference in order to talk something over

conference: meeting for consultation or discussion; exchange of views

confess: acknowledge; admit

confession: public declaration of faith

confide: disclose; reveal; tell in confidence

confidence: feeling secure or certain about something

confident: assured; having or marked by assurance

confidential: treated with confidence; trusted in; trustworthy; secret

confine: restrict in movement; circumscribe

confinement: state of being confined; restraint within limits; any restraint of liberty by force

confirm: support or establish the certainty or validity of; verify

confirmation: additional proof that something that was believed

conflict: fight; struggle; incompatibility of dates or events

conform: comply with; follow; fit; meet

conformity: similarity in form or character; agreement

confront: be face to face with; oppose in hostility or competition; deal with

confrontation: state of being confronted, especially a meeting face to face; clash of opinions and ideas

confuse: cause to be unable to think with clarity or act with intelligence or understanding; mix up

confusion: mistake that results from taking one thing to be another; lack of clarity or order

congestion: act of gathering or heaping together or forming a mass

congratulation: act of acknowledging that someone has an occasion for celebration

congress: meeting of elected or appointed representatives

congressman: man who is a member of the U.S. Congress, especially of the House of Representatives

conjunction: state of being conjoined, united, or associated; union; association; league

connect: join, or fasten together; associate; combine; unite or link together

connection: relation between things or events; shifting from one form of transportation to another

conquer: gain or acquire by force; take possession of by violent means; gain dominion over

conquest: success in mastering something difficult

conscience: motivation deriving logically from ethical or moral principles; source of moral or ethical judgment

conscientious: diligent; responsible; reliable

conscious: awake; alert

consciousness: having knowledge of ; special awareness or sensitivity:

consecutive: following one after another without interruption; sequential

consent: agree in opinion or sentiment; be of the same mind; accord; concur; allow

consequence: result; relation of a result to its cause; logical conclusion or inference

consequently: therefore; as a result or consequence of something; subsequently

conservation: preservation or restoration from loss, damage, or neglect

conservative: favoring traditional views and values; tending to oppose change

considerable: worthy of consideration; large in amount, extent, or degree

considerably: substantially; significantly; to a degree worth considering

considerate: thoughtful; marked by consideration or reflection; deliberate

consideration: considerate and thoughtful act

consign: give, transfer, or deliver in a formal manner, as if by signing over into the possession of another

consist: stand firm; be in a fixed or permanent state; be supported and maintained

consistency: harmonious uniformity or agreement among things or parts

consistent: being in agreement with itself; coherent; regular

console: cheer from distress or depression; alleviate grief and raise spirits of; relieve; comfort

consolidate: make solid; unite or press together into a compact mass; harden or make dense and firm

consonant: compatible; harmonious

conspicuous: noticeable; prominent; easy to notice; obvious

conspiracy: plot; intrigue; agreement to perform together an illegal, wrongful, or subversive act

constant: invariable; repeating; continually occurring; persistent

constantly: in an unchangeable or invariable manner; in every case; perpetually; continually

constituent: component or part; citizen, voter

constitute: make up; form something

constitution: law determining the fundamental political principles of a government; the act of forming something

constraint: something that restricts or confines within prescribed bounds

construct: form by assembling or combining parts; build; create

construction: act of constructing or building something

consult: seek advice or information of; take into account; consider

consultant: an expert who gives advice

consume: devour; eat

consumer: people who buy goods or services

consumption: eating or drinking of something

contact: get in touch with; reach

contain: include; incorporate; be capable of holding

container: any object that can be used to hold things

contemplate: look at attentively and thoughtfully; observe deep in thought

contemplation: act of the mind in considering with attention; continued attention of the mind to a particular subject; meditation; expectation

contemporary: modern; belonging to the same period of time

contempt: state of being despised or dishonored; disgrace; disobedience to, or open disrespect of

contemptuous: scornful; expressing contempt; showing a lack of respect

content: volume; something contained; material, including text and images

contest: contend for; call in question; oppose; dispute

context: circumstance

continent: one of the large landmasses of the earth

continental: being or concerning or limited to a continent

contingency: condition of being dependent on chance; uncertainty; possibility

contract: constrict; make smaller; compress or concentrate

contradict: confront; oppose

contradiction: assertion of the contrary to what has been said or affirmed; denial of the truth of a statement or assertion

contrary: relation of direct opposition; very opposed in nature or character or purpose

contrast: act of distinguishing by comparing differences

contribute: provide; bestow a quality on

contribution: act of contributing; contribution; payment exacted for special purpose; impost or levy

controversial: controvertible; disputable

controversy: contentious speech act; argument

convenience: state of being suitable

convenient: suited or favorable to one's comfort, purpose, or needs:; near; accessible

convention: social or moral custom; formal meeting of members, representatives, or delegates; agreement between states

conventional: based upon tradition rules; formed by agreement or compact

conversant: familiar, as by study or experience; able to converse knowledgeably

conversation: general course of conduct; intimate fellowship or association; close acquaintance; informal dialogue

converse: chat; talk informally; engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts

conversely: in a converse manner; with change of order or relation; reciprocally.

conversion: change; transformation

convert: change something into another form; transform

convey: carry from one place to another; bear or transport

conveyance: act of conveying; tools of conveying, especially vehicle for transportation

convict: find or declare guilty

conviction: judgment that someone is guilty of crime; strongly held belief

convince: overpower; force to yield assent to truth; satisfy by proof; prove guilty

convinced: certain, sure

cooperate: work or act together toward a common end or purpose

cooperation: practice of cooperating; joint operation or action

cooperative: done with or working with others

coordinate: bring order and organization to; harmonize

coordination: regulation of diverse elements into an integrated and harmonious operation

cordial: gracious; showing warm and friendliness

core: basic, center, or most important part; essence

cork: lightweight elastic outer bark, used especially for bottle closures, insulation, floats

corn: single seed of certain plants, as wheat; grain; small, hard particle

corner: position at which two lines, surfaces, or edges meet and form an angle

corporate: united or combined into one body; collective; belonging to corporation or incorporated body

corporation: business firm; a group of people combined into or acting as one body

correlate: relate; associate; bring into a mutual relation

correlation: mutual relationship; interdependence or interconnection relationship

correspond: be compatible, similar or consistent; exchange messages

correspondence: similarity or analogy; communication by the exchange of letters

correspondent: one who communicates information, especially, by letter or telegram to newspaper or periodical

corresponding: accompanying

corrode: destroy metal or alloy gradually, especially by chemical action; be eaten or worn away

corrosion: decay; erosion

corrupt: changed from sound to putrid state; spoiled; tainted

corruption: bribery; fraud

cosmic: pertaining to the universe; vast

cosmopolitan: sophisticated; of worldwide scope

cosmos: universe or universality of created things; ordered, harmonious whole

couch: sofa; arrange or dispose as in a bed

counsel: advise; suggest

countenance: give sanction or support to; tolerate or approve

counter: flat surface on which money is counted, business is transacted; one that is an opposite

countermand: cancel; revoke command or order; order or direct in opposition to; prohibit; forbid

counterpart: duplicate copy; analogue; one that closely resembles another

countless: innumerable; infinite; too many to count

couple: a male and female associated together; a pair who associate with one another

court: enclosed space; courtyard; uncovered area shut in by the walls of a building

courteous: exhibiting courtesy and politeness; showing regard or thought for others

courtesy: polite behavior; act of civility or respect; consent or agreement in spite of fact

cover: overspread the surface; envelop; shelter, as from evil or danger; protect

coverage: extent to which something is covered; news as presented by reporters

coward: person who lacks courage to face danger; timid

crab: a stroke of the oar that either misses the water or digs too deeply

crack: break into simpler molecules by means of heat; split; hit forcefully; pass through

cradle: small low bed for an infant, often furnished with rockers; infancy, or very early life

craft: something made by people; vessel

crash: smash; collision; falling down or in pieces with a loud noise of breaking parts

crate: large basket, used for moving china or similar wares; box or case whose sides are of wooden slats with interspaces

crave: ask with earnestness or importunity; ask with submission or humility; beg

crawl: move slowly, as people or animals with the body near the ground

crazy: affected with madness; insane; deranged

create: make or cause to be or to become; invest with a new thing

creation: act of creating or causing to exist

credit: arrangement for deferred payment for goods and services; money available for a client to borrow

creek: small stream, often a shallow tributary to a river; brook

creep: move slowly; move stealthily or cautiously

crew: group of people working together, as in spacecraft, ship, plane or train

cricket: outdoor game played with bats, a ball, and wickets by two teams of 11 players each

criminal: one who has committed a crime; one who is found guilty by verdict, confession, or proof

crimson: bloody

cripple: person or animal that is partially disabled or unable to use a limb or limb

crisis: dangerous situation; crucial or decisive point or situation; a turning point

crisp: firm but easily broken or crumbled; brittle

critical: urgently needed; absolutely necessary; essential; acute; crucial; decisive

crook: bend, turn, or curve; curvature; flexure

crooked: having or marked by bends or angles; not straight or aligned; curved

crop: the top, end, or highest part of anything, especially of plant or tree; grain or other product of field while standing; anything cut off or gathered

crossing: traveling across; place at which roads, lines, or tracks intersect; intersection

crouch: bend down; stoop low; lie close to the ground with the legs bent, as an animal when waiting for prey, or in fear

crown: ornamental circlet or head covering, made of gold with jewels and worn as a symbol of sovereignty

crude: being in an unrefined or natural state; raw; lacking tact or taste; blunt or offensive

cruise: sail back and forth on the ocean; sail as for protection of commerce, in search of an enemy, or for pleasure

crumb: small fragment or piece, especially, a small piece of bread or other food; broken or cut off

crumble: break into small pieces; cause to fall in pieces

crush: press between opposing bodies so as to break or injure; extract or obtain by pressing or squeezing

crust: outer layer ; covering; coat; shell

crystal: quartz; glassware made of quartz; high-quality, clear, colorless glass

cube: three-dimensional shape with six square or rectangular sides; cubicle, used for work or study

cubic: having three dimensions

cubism: an artistic movement in France beginning in 1907 that featured surfaces of geometrical planes

cucumber: cylindrical green fruit with thin green rind and white flesh eaten as a vegetable; related to melons

cultivate: improve and prepare, as by plowing or fertilizing, for raising crops; promote the growth of

cultivation: production of food by preparing the land to grow crops

culture: all the knowledge and values shared by a society ; foster; raising of plants or animals

cunning: knowing; skillful; artful; designing; deceitful

cupboard: a small room or cabinet used for storage space

curb: bend or curve; guide and manage, or restrain

cure: medical or hygienic care; remedial treatment of disease; removal of disease or evil

curiosity: desire to know or learn

curious: difficult to please or satisfy; careful or anxious to learn; eager for knowledge; given to research or inquiry

curl: form into coiled or spiral shape; twist into ringlets or coils; move in curve or spiral

currency: money; general acceptance or use

current: stream; flow; up-to-date; present

currently: presently; at the present time

curse: call upon divine or supernatural power to send injury upon; bring great evil upon

curtail: cut short or reduce; cut off end or tail, or any part

curve: bend or turn gradually from a given direction, as road curves to the right

cushion: soft pillow or pad usually used for sitting, reclining, or kneeling

custody: keeping or guarding; care, watch, inspection, for keeping, preservation, or security

custom: tradition; practice followed by people of a particular group or region

customary: agreeing with or established by common usage; conventional; habitual

customer: patron; one that buys goods or services

customs: money collected under a tariff

cycle: periodically repeated sequence of events; long period of time; entire round in a circle or a spire

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