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Friday, 24 May 2013

Prefixes

aero- prefix
of the air or of air travel
aerodynamics
aeronautics
Afro- prefix
of or connected with Africa
Afro-Caribbean culture
Afro-American literature
after- prefix
coming afterwards
an after-dinner speech
an after-hours club
after-sales service
all- prefix
1. used in front of many nouns to form adjectives meaning `every', `every type of' or `the whole of' that particular thing
an all-night bar (= a bar that is open for the whole night)
all- prefix
2. used in front of many adjectives and present participles to mean `everything' or `everyone'
an all-inclusive price
all-conquering armies
all- prefix
3. used in front of many nouns and adjectives to mean `completely'
all-cotton socks (= socks that are made completely of cotton)
When cooking the sauce, don't forget that all- important (= most or very important) ingredient, fresh basil.
Do you believe in an all- powerful god (= one with unlimited power) ?
Anglo- prefix
relating to the UK or England
an Anglophile (= someone who loves England)
ante- prefix
before or in front of
antedate
antenatal
anteroom
anthropo- prefix ( also anthrop- )
relating to humans
anthropomorphism
anti- prefix
opposed to or against; opposite of or preventing
arch- prefix MAIN
1. most important
an archbishop
an archduke
arch- prefix EXTREME
2. greater or especially worse than others of the same type
an arch-criminal
his arch-enemy
He's always been an arch-opponent of the scheme.
astro- prefix
relating to space, the planets, stars or other objects in space, or to a structure in the shape of a star
astrology
astronaut
astrophysics
audio- prefix
relating to hearing or sound
audiotape
auto- prefix
of or by yourself, or operating independently and without needing help
an autofocus camera
an auto-immune disease
bi- prefix TWICE
1. twice, or once every two
We meet bi-monthly (= twice every month or once every two months) .
bi- prefix TWO
2. having two
a biped (= an animal which walks on two legs)
a biplane (= an old-fashioned aircraft with two wings)
bio- prefix
connected with life and living things
bioethics
biodiversity
cardi- prefix specialized
cardio-
cardio- prefix ( also cardi- )
of the heart
cardiovascular
centi- prefix
0.01 of the stated unit
a centimetre
a centilitre
co- prefix
together; with
co-ownership
a co-writer/co-author
Appalling poverty and great wealth coexist in the city.
col- prefix
together; with
colleagues
com- prefix
together; with
combination
community
companions
con- prefix
together; with
conspiracy
consortium
contra- prefix
against or opposite
to contradict (= say the opposite)
contraception (= something that is used to prevent pregnancy)
cor- prefix
together; with
to correspond
counter- prefix
opposing or as a reaction to
a counter-attack (= an attack on someone who has attacked you)
cross- prefix
1. across
cross-border
cross- prefix
2. including different groups or subjects
a cross-party committee (= one formed from many political parties)
cross-cultural
crypto- prefix
hidden or secret
The minister accused his opponent of being a crypto-communist.
custom- prefix
used before another word to mean 'specially designed for a particular person or purpose'
custom-designed
custom-built software
cyber- prefix
involving, using or relating to computers, especially the Internet
cybercrime
cyberculture
de- prefix
used to add the meaning 'opposite', 'remove' or 'reduce' to a noun or verb
deforestation
the denationalization of the coal industry
Once you've written a computer program, you have to debug (= remove the errors from) it.
deca- prefix
ten
decade
dis- prefix
added to the front of some words to form their opposites
to disagree
a dishonest person
down- prefix
at or towards the end or the lower or worse part
downhill
downriver
down-market
the downside
e- prefix
abbreviation for electronic
e-commerce
email
eco- prefix
connected with the environment
en- prefix ( before b or p em- )
1. used to form verbs which mean to put into or onto something
encase
encircle
endanger
en- prefix ( before b or p em- )
2. used to form verbs which mean to cause to be something
enable
endear
enlarge
enrich
en- prefix ( before b or p em- )
3. used to form verbs which mean to provide with something
empower
equi- prefix
equal or equally
Euro- prefix
1. relating to the European Union
the Euro elections
a Euro-MP (= Member of the European Parliament)
Euro- prefix
2. relating to Europe
Europop (= modern, young people's music from Europe)
ex- prefix
used to show that someone is no longer what they were
ex-prisoners
ex-policemen
my ex-husband
my ex-girlfriend
extra- prefix
outside or in addition to
extraterrestrial beings (= imaginary creatures which come from outside the planet Earth)
an extramarital affair (= a sexual relationship of a married person with someone other than their husband or wife)
extracurricular activities (= activities which are not part of the usual school or college course)
fore- prefix
at or towards the front
the forelegs (= front legs) of a horse
the foreground (= things that seem nearest to you) of a picture
Franco- prefix
of or connected with France
the Franco-German border (= the border between France and Germany)
a francophile (= someone who loves France)
fresh- prefix
recently done
fresh-baked bread
fresh-cut flowers
geo- prefix
of or relating to the Earth
geophysics
geology
giga- prefix
used to form words with the meaning 1 000 000 000
gigavolt
gigahertz
gigawatt
Graeco- prefix
UK spelling of Greco-
great- prefix
used with a word for a family member to mean one generation away from that member
your great-grandmother (= the grandmother of one of your parents)
your great-grandson (= the grandson of your child)
Greco- , Graeco- prefix
of or connected with ancient Greece
splendid Greco-Roman ruins
hydro- prefix WATER
1. connected with or using the power of water
hydroponic (= a method of growing plants in water)
hydro- prefix GAS
2. showing that hydrogen is present
hyper- prefix
having too much of the stated quality
hyperactive
hypercritical
hypersensitive
ill- prefix
in a way which is bad or not suitable
ill-prepared
an ill-judged remark
in- , before l il- , before b, m or p im- , before r ir- prefix
used to add the meaning 'not', ' lacking ', or 'the opposite of' to adjectives and to words formed from adjectives
incomplete/incompletely
illegal/illegally
impossible/impossibly
irregular/irregularly
Indo- prefix
of or connected with India
Indo-European languages
the Indo-Chinese border
inter- prefix
used to form adjectives meaning 'between or among the stated people, things or places'
international
an interdepartmental meeting
intercontinental missiles
intra- prefix
used to form adjectives meaning 'within' (the stated place or group)
intra-EU trade
intrafamily disputes
it- prefix informal
used for describing things or people that are very fashionable, and everyone is interested in them, wants to have them, etc
The design of this bag makes it the 'it-bag' for this summer.
Italo- prefix
of or connected with Italy
an Italo-German production
kilo- prefix
Kilo- means 1000 times the stated unit
kilowatt
kilohertz
macro- prefix
large; relating to the whole of something, rather than its parts
macroscopic (= large enough to be seen by the human eye)
macroeconomics (= the study of financial systems at a national level)
mal- prefix formal
badly or wrongly
The disease rubella can cause pregnant women to have malformed babies.
maxi- prefix
most, very large
maximum
mega- prefix NUMBER
1. 1 000 000 times the stated unit
a megawatt
a megabyte
mega- prefix BIG/GOOD
2. informal large in amount or size
He's mega-rich.
They're earning megabucks (= a lot of money) .
micro- prefix SMALL
1. very small
a microorganism
microbiology
micro- prefix MEASUREMENT
2. 1 000 000th of the stated unit
a micrometre
a microgram
mid- prefix
the middle of
mid-March
mid-afternoon
US the Mideast
He's in his mid-thirties.
He stopped (in) mid-sentence.
milli- prefix
0.001 of the stated unit
milliamp
millijoule
mini- prefix
smaller or less important than a normal example of the same thing
There's a mini-library in each classroom, as well as the central library.
We took the kids to play mini-golf.
mis- prefix
added to the beginning of a verb or word formed from a verb, to show that the action referred to by the verb has been done wrongly or badly
I never said that! You must have misheard me.
His misbehaviour eventually led to him being expelled from school.
mono- prefix
one; single
monolingual
a monorail
multi- prefix
having many
a multi-coloured skirt (= a skirt with many colours)
a multi-vitamin tablet (= a pill which contains several vitamins)
must- prefix informal
nano- prefix
1. one thousand millionth
a nanosecond
nano- prefix
2. extremely small
nanotechnology
near- prefix
combines with adjectives and nouns to mean 'almost'
We had a near-disaster this morning in the car!
She was near-hysterical by the time I arrived there.
neo- prefix
new or recent, or in a modern form
neo-fascist
neo-Nazi
neo-realist cinema
neur(o)- prefix
relating to nerves
neuroscience
A neurotransmitter is a chemical that nerve cells use to communicate with each other and with muscles.
new- prefix
recent or recently
The government's new -found enthusiasm for green issues has been welcomed by environmentalists.
non- prefix
used to add the meaning 'not' or 'the opposite of' to adjectives and nouns
non-sexist
non-racist
omni- prefix
everywhere or everything
omnipresent
omniscient
out- prefix NOT CENTRAL
1. used to add the meaning 'not central' to nouns and adjectives
the outskirts of town (= the areas that form the edge of the town)
out- prefix FURTHER
2. used to add the meaning 'going further' or 'being better than' to verbs
She doesn't drink or smoke and I'm sure she'll outlive (= live longer than) us all.
out- prefix AWAY FROM
3. used to add the meaning 'out of' or 'away from' to nouns and adjectives
She turned away from their outstretched hands (= hands held out) .
over- prefix TOO MUCH
1. too much or more than usual
The children got rather over-excited (= too excited) .
over- prefix MORE THAN
2. more than
a club for the over-50s
over- prefix ACROSS
3. across
Of course, the overland route is much slower than going by air.
over- prefix HIGHER POSITION
4. above
She was knocked off her bicycle by an overhanging branch.
palaeo- , US also paleo- prefix
ancient; from a time before history was being recorded
palaeobotany
paleo- prefix
another spelling of palaeo-
pan- prefix
including or relating to all the places or people in a particular group
a pan-American conference
a pan-European summit
the Pan-African Congress
para- prefix FURTHER
1. further than
Parapsychology is the study of abilities that go beyond what is natural and normal.
paranormal phenomena
para- prefix SIMILAR
2. similar to, or helping to do a similar job
a paramedic
paramilitary
photo- prefix LIGHT
1. connected with or produced by light
photosynthesis
photo- prefix PHOTOGRAPH
2. connected with photography
photojournalism
poly- prefix
many
a polytheistic (= believing in many gods) society
a polymath (= person who knows a lot about many different subjects.)
post- prefix
after or later than
postgraduate
postoperative
He took a post-lunch nap.
pre- prefix
before (a time or an event)
a pre-flight check
a pre-lunch drink
pre-industrial societies
pro- prefix
supporting or approving of something
pro-American
pro-democracy demonstrations
prot(o)- prefix
first, especially from which other similar things develop; original
protoplasm
a prototype
pseud(o)- prefix mainly disapproving
not real; pretended
pseudo-religious
a pseudo-intellectual
psych(o)- prefix
of the mind or mental processes
psychopharmacology (= the study of drugs which affect the mind)
quasi- prefix
used to show that something is almost, but not completely, the thing described
The school uniform is quasi-military in style.
re- prefix
1. used to add the meaning 'do again', especially to verbs
rebuild
remarry
reusable
re- prefix
2. returning something to its original state
reafforestation (= planting new trees in an area where they were previously cut down) .
retro- prefix BACKWARDS
1. going backwards
retro- prefix PAST
2. looking at or copying the past
retro-pop (= popular music from the past)
Romano- prefix
of or connected with Rome or Romans
a tutor in Romano-British history
self- prefix
of or by yourself or itself
self-educated
a self-winding watch
semi- prefix
half or partly
semi-literate
semi-permanent
semi-skilled workers
a semi-autobiographical novel
she- prefix
a she-wolf (= a female wolf)
short- prefix
used with adjectives ending in -ed formed from nouns to describe something with a short part
a short-haired dog (= a dog with short hair)
a short-sleeved shirt (= a shirt with short sleeves)
Sino- prefix
of or connected with China
Sino-Cuban trade relations
socio- prefix
relating to society
socioeconomic
step- prefix
being of the stated relationship to someone through the previous marriage of their husband or wife, or through their mother or father marrying again
stepfather
stepmother
stepchildren
sub- prefix BELOW
1. under or below
Winter weather brought sub-zero (= less than 0 degrees) temperatures to much of the country.
sub- prefix NOT QUITE
2. almost or nearly
subhuman
subtropical
sub- prefix NOT EQUAL
3. less important or lower in rank
a sublieutenant
a subordinate
sub- prefix SMALLER
4. being a smaller part of a larger whole
a subcontinent
a subcommittee meeting
to subdivide
super- prefix MORE THAN USUAL
1. larger, or more effective, or more powerful, or more successful than usual; very or more than usually
a supercomputer
a supermodel
the super-rich
superfine stockings
super- prefix OVER
2. over; above
a superstructure
techno- prefix
relating to or involving technology
a technophile (= a person who loves technology)
tele- prefix
over a long distance, done by telephone, or on or for television
thermo- prefix
connected with heat or temperature
a thermo-nuclear device
top- prefix
used with many different words to mean 'best'
a top-class athlete
top-ranking officers
trans- prefix ACROSS
1. across
a trans-Atlantic flight
the trans-Alaskan pipeline
trans- prefix CHANGED
2. having changed from one thing to another
Kate has transformed (= completely changed the appearance of) that house since she moved in.
She is a transsexual (= She has changed from being a man to a woman) .
tri- prefix
three
a triangle
a tripod
über- , uber- prefix humorous
used before nouns to mean 'extreme' or 'extremely good/successful'
über-model, Giselle
über-billionaire
ultra- prefix
extreme or extremely
ultra-expensive
ultra-modern architecture
ultra-sensitive
an ultra-short haircut
un- prefix
used to add the meaning 'not', 'lacking' or 'the opposite of' before adjectives, adverbs, verbs and nouns
unrealistic
unhappily
unscrew
unfairness
under- prefix
1. not enough or not done as well or as much as is necessary
undercooked potatoes
underprivileged children
We're all overworked and underpaid.
His boss says he's under-performing (= not doing as well as he should) at work.
under- prefix
2. below
underwear
an underpass
uni- prefix
having or consisting of only one
unilateral
unisex
up- prefix
higher or improved
uphill
uplift
vice prefix
( also vice- ) used as part of the title of particular positions. The person who holds one of these positions is next below in authority to the person who holds the full position and can act for them
the vice captain of the team
a vice admiral
rent-a- prefix UK disapproving
used when a person, thing or group of people seems to have been rented for a particular purpose and is not sincere
Most of the people on the protest seemed to be rent-a-mob, not real supporters.
humorous Old rent-a-quote is always turning up on TV to give his opinions.
anthropo- prefix ( also anthrop- )
relating to humans
anthropomorphism
cardio- prefix ( also cardi- )
of the heart
cardiovascular
en- prefix ( before b or p em- )
1. used to form verbs which mean to put into or onto something
encase
encircle
endanger
en- prefix ( before b or p em- )
2. used to form verbs which mean to cause to be something
enable
endear
enlarge
enrich
en- prefix ( before b or p em- )
3. used to form verbs which mean to provide with something
empower
Greco- , Graeco- prefix
of or connected with ancient Greece
splendid Greco-Roman ruins
in- , before l il- , before b, m or p im- , before r ir- prefix
used to add the meaning 'not', ' lacking ', or 'the opposite of' to adjectives and to words formed from adjectives
incomplete/incompletely
illegal/illegally
impossible/impossibly
irregular/irregularly
in- , before l il- , before b, m or p im- , before r ir- prefix
used to add the meaning 'not', ' lacking ', or 'the opposite of' to adjectives and to words formed from adjectives
incomplete/incompletely
illegal/illegally
impossible/impossibly
irregular/irregularly
in- , before l il- , before b, m or p im- , before r ir- prefix
used to add the meaning 'not', ' lacking ', or 'the opposite of' to adjectives and to words formed from adjectives
incomplete/incompletely
illegal/illegally
impossible/impossibly
irregular/irregularly
palaeo- , US also paleo- prefix
ancient; from a time before history was being recorded
palaeobotany
über- , uber- prefix humorous
used before nouns to mean 'extreme' or 'extremely good/successful'
über-model, Giselle
über-billionaire
vice prefix
( also vice- ) used as part of the title of particular positions. The person who holds one of these positions is next below in authority to the person who holds the full position and can act for them
the vice captain of the team
a vice admiral

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