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Friday, 24 May 2013

Suffixes

-ability suffix ( also ibility )
used to form nouns from adjectives ending in '-able' or '-ible', to mean the quality of being the stated adjective
suitability
stability
-able suffix ( also ible ) CAN BE
1. added to verbs to form adjectives which mean able to receive the action of the stated verb
breakable
washable
moveable
-able suffix ( also ible ) WORTH BEING
2. added to verbs to form adjectives which mean worth receiving the action of the stated verb
an admirable person
an acceptable answer
-age suffix ACTION
1. used to form nouns which refer to the action or result of something
blockage
shrinkage
wastage
All breakages must be paid for.
-age suffix STATE
2. used to form nouns which refer to a state or condition
bondage
marriage
shortage
-age suffix PLACE
3. used to form nouns which are names of places
orphanage
vicarage
-aholic , -oholic suffix
unable to stop doing,eating or drinking something
a workaholic
an alcoholic
a chocoholic
-al suffix
used to add the meaning 'connected with' to adjectives, or 'the action of' to nouns
medical (= connected with medicine)
approval (= the act of approving)
-an suffix ( also -ean , also -ian )
connected with or belonging to the stated place, group or type
an American
a Canadian
a Korean
a Christian
Russian literature
Italian opera
-ance suffix
-ence
-ancy suffix
-ency
-ant suffix ( also -ent )
(a person or thing) performing or causing the stated action
assistant
participant
disinfectant
an expectant look
a defiant child
-arian suffix
(a person who has) a connection with or belief in the stated subject
a librarian (= person who works in a library)
a vegetarian (= a person who does not eat meat)
humanitarian aid (= help for injured, ill or hungry people)
-armed suffix
having the stated number or type of arms
a one-armed person
-athon suffix
added to the end of words referring to an activity or event, especially one that has been organized to raise money for charity , to show that it continues for a long time
a 24-hour dance-athon
a walkathon
-ation suffix
-ion (ACTION)
-ative suffix ( also -itive )
added to verbs to form adjectives meaning showing the ability to perform the activity represented by the verb
-backed suffix SUPPORTED
1. used to form adjectives that describe who is providing support, especially financial support
government-backed contracts
US-backed intervention
-backed suffix BACK PART
2. used to form adjectives that describe what substance or material is at the back of something, or what the back of something is like
foam-backed carpet
high-backed dining chairs
-based suffix MAIN PLACE
1. used to form adjectives showing the main place or area in which something or someone works, lives or does business
a Manchester-based company
community-based programs
-based suffix MAIN PART
2. used to form adjectives describing the main thing from which a particular substance or object is made
This is a cream-based sauce.
-basher suffix slang HIT
1. used in nouns meaning someone who hits or attacks a particular type of person
gay/queer-basher
-basher suffix slang CRITICIZE
2. used in nouns meaning someone who strongly criticizes a particular type of person or thing
union-basher
-bashing suffix slang HIT
1. used in nouns meaning the practice of attacking a particular type of person violently
gay/queer-bashing
-bashing suffix slang CRITICIZE
2. used in nouns meaning strong criticism of a particular type of person or thing
union-bashing
-bearing suffix
supporting or holding the stated thing
a load -bearing wall
ore-bearing rocks
-bedroomed suffix
having the stated number of bedrooms
a two-bedroomed house
-behaved suffix
used after a word describing how someone behaves
well/badly/perfectly-behaved children
-bellied suffix
having a belly (= stomach) of the type mentioned
pot-bellied
big-bellied
-blooded suffix
having the type of blood mentioned
warm-blooded
-bodied suffix PHYSICAL STRUCTURE
1. having a particular type of body
a long-bodied insect
a soft-bodied doll
-bodied suffix QUALITY
2. having a particular quality of thickness or strength of flavour
a medium-bodied wine
-boned suffix
having bones of the type mentioned
She is big -boned, but she's not fat.
-bore suffix mainly UK ( US usually -gauge )
used in adjectives to express the width of a circular hole in a cylindrical object, especially the inside of a gun barrel (= part shaped like a tube)
a twelve-bore shotgun
-born suffix
born in the way, place or order mentioned
newborn
Ben Okri is a Nigerian-born poet and novelist.
the first-born son
-borne suffix
carried or moved by a particular thing
airborne
waterborne
-bound suffix DIRECTION
1. travelling in the stated direction
Northbound traffic is moving very slowly because of the accident.
US The line did not close completely, but inbound and outbound trains (= trains which were arriving and leaving) had to share one of the two tracks near the station.
-bound suffix PREVENTING LEAVING
2. (causing people to be) unable to leave a place because of an unwanted condition
During his long illness he was completely housebound (= he could not leave the house) .
She has been wheelchair-bound for several years.
The airport was completely fogbound (= covered by fog) .
-bound suffix COVERED
3. used to describe a book that is covered or held together in the stated way
a leather-bound book
a spiral-bound notebook
-bound suffix COVERED
4. used to describe clothes or other objects that have edges covered in the stated way
leather-bound cuffs
-brained suffix
1. having a particular type of brain
These dinosaurs were large-brained and more intelligent than most.
-brained suffix
2. disapproving used in various phrases to describe someone as stupid or badly organized
bird-brained
harebrained
scatterbrained
-breaker suffix USE FORCE
1. someone who uses force to go into or open the stated thing
a house-breaker
a safebreaker
-breaker suffix NOT OBEY
2. someone who does not obey a law or rule, etc.
a lawbreaker
-breasted suffix CLOTHING
1. (of a coat or jacket, etc.) designed with the stated arrangement of buttons at the front
double-breasted
single-breasted
-breasted suffix WOMAN
2. having the stated type of breasts
a big/small-breasted woman
-brimmed suffix
She wore a wide -brimmed hat.
-buster suffix
a person or thing intended to destroy the stated thing
crime-busters
-capable suffix
added to nouns to form adjectives which mean able to use the stated thing
These are nuclear-capable aircraft (= They can carry nuclear weapons) .
-capped suffix
with a top covered in the way mentioned
a snow-capped mountain
-celled suffix
(of a plant or an animal) containing the stated number of cells
a single-celled life form
-centric suffix
having the stated thing as your main interest
Eurocentric
-centrism suffix
-cheeked suffix
-chested suffix
with a chest (= top half of the body) of the stated type
He was bare -chested.
She is rather flat -chested (= She has small breasts) .
-chinned suffix
having a particular type of chin
square-chinned
-coated suffix COVER
1. with a covering of the stated substance
sugar -coated almonds
-coated suffix ANIMAL
2. (of an animal) with a coat (= hair, wool or fur) of the stated type
a smooth-coated dog
-coloured UK , US suffix
of the colour or colours described
a multi-coloured scarf
brightly-coloured flowers
flesh-coloured tights
-conscious suffix
used after nouns and adverbs to mean 'knowing about and worried about a particular thing', or 'thinking that something is important'
fashion-conscious teenagers
the health-conscious consumer
He's never been especially politically conscious.
-cornered suffix
having the number of corners mentioned
a three-cornered hat
-covered suffix
covered in the way mentioned
snow- covered hills
-degree suffix
used with an ordinal number to show how serious something is
She suffered first-/second-/third -degree (= least serious/serious/very serious) burns on her legs.
US He's being charged with first -degree (= the most serious type of) murder .
-dimensional suffix
having measurements in the stated directions
a three-dimensional figure
-driven suffix POWER
1. providing the power to keep a machine working, or to make something happen
The new ships, propelled by gas turbines, require less maintenance than older, steam-driven ones.
The fact remains that there are some public services that cannot be entirely market -driven (= controlled by economic forces) .
-driven suffix VEHICLE
2. describing the person driving a vehicle
He arrived every morning by chauffeur -driven car.
-eared suffix
with ears of a particular type
a long-eared rabbit
-ed suffix ( also -d )
used to form the past simple and past participle of regular verbs
called
asked
looked
started
played
returned
worked
-edged suffix
having a particular type of edge
a double-edged blade
-ee suffix OBJECT
1. added to a verb to form a noun which refers to the person who the action of the verb is being done to
an employee (= someone who is employed)
the payee (= a person who money is paid to)
an interviewee (= someone who is being interviewed for a job)
-ee suffix CONDITION
2. added to an adjective, noun or verb to refer to a person who is in that condition or state
a refugee (= someone who has taken refuge )
an escapee (= someone who has escaped)
-elect suffix
-en suffix
used to form verbs which mean to increase the stated quality
Sweeten to taste with honey or brown sugar.
I've had to loosen my belt.
enabled adjective , suffix
1. provided with a particular type of equipment or technology , or having the necessary or correct system, device or arrangement to use it
WAP-enabled mobile phones
Their aim is to make sure that every home and business becomes Internet -enabled in the next 10 years.
enabled adjective , suffix
2. operated or made possible by the use of a particular thing
voice-enabled software
-ence , suffix ACTION
1. used to form nouns which refer to an action or series of actions
violence (= violent actions)
a performance (= act of performing)
-ence , suffix STATE
2. used to form nouns which describe a state or quality
her long absence (= period during which she was absent)
-ency , -ancy suffix
used to form nouns showing a state or quality
her long presidency (= time during which she was President)
a difficult pregnancy (= time during which a woman is pregnant)
-engined suffix
used for showing what type or number of engines something has
twin-engined
jet-engined
-enhancing suffix
Several athletes tested positive for illegal performance -enhancing drugs.
-er suffix PERFORMER
1. ( also -or ) added to some verbs to form nouns which refer to people or things that do that particular activity
a singer (= a person who sings)
a swimmer (= a person who swims)
a dishwasher (= a machine or person that washes dishes)
an actor (= a person who acts)
-er suffix SPECIALIST
2. added to the names of particular subjects to form nouns which refer to people who have knowledge about or are studying that subject
a philosopher (= a person who knows about/studies philosophy)
an astronomer (= a person who knows about/studies astronomy)
-er suffix FROM A PLACE
3. added to the names of particular places to form nouns referring to people who come from those places
a Londoner (= a person who comes from London)
a northerner (= a person who comes from the north)
-er suffix INVOLVED WITH
4. added to nouns or adjectives to form nouns referring to people who are connected or involved with that particular thing
a pensioner (= a person who receives a pension )
first graders (= children who are in the first grade of an American school)
-er suffix CHARACTERISTICS
5. added to nouns to form nouns or adjectives referring to people or things which have those particular characteristics
a double-decker (= a bus with two decks )
a big-spender (= someone who spends a lot of money)
-ese suffix
of a place, or the language spoken in a place
Lebanese
Chinese
-esque suffix
like or in the style of someone or their work
Dali-esque
Leonardo-esque
Working there was like being trapped in a Kafkaesque nightmare.
-est suffix
makes superlative adjectives and adverbs
bravest
latest
-eyed suffix
with the type of eyes described
a brown-eyed baby girl
She was wide-eyed in amazement.
-faced suffix
with the type of face described
round-faced (= having a round face)
sad-faced (= having a sad face)
red-faced (= embarrassed)
-faceted suffix
-facing suffix
turned towards the stated direction
Most avalanche accidents occur on north- and east-facing slopes.
fest noun , suffix
-field suffix
an area of land containing a particular natural substance
an oilfield
a coalfield
-filled suffix
full of the stated thing
a smoke-filled room
a fun-filled weekend
-fingered suffix
with or using the stated number of fingers
two-fingered typing
-fired suffix
using the stated type of fuel
Gas -fired power stations are expected to produce cheaper electricity than coal -fired ones.
-fixing suffix
dishonest activity to make certain that a competition, race or election is won by a particular person
Seven jockeys were arrested and charged with race-fixing.
After several days of questioning, he admitted to match-fixing.
-flavoured UK , US -flavored suffix
tasting of the thing stated
orange-flavoured chocolate
mint-flavoured sweets
-fold suffix
having the stated number of parts, or multiplied by the stated number
threefold
fourfold
The problems are twofold - firstly, economic, and secondly, political.
In the last 50 years, there has been a 33-fold increase in the amount of pesticide used in farming.
-footed suffix
with feet of the stated type or number
our four-footed friends (= animals having four feet)
bare-footed children (= children wearing no shoes)
-footer suffix
the stated number of feet in length
Our boat's a forty-footer.
-former suffix
a student of the stated class group
sixth-formers (= students usually aged 16-18)
-free suffix NO CHARGE
1. used at the end of words to mean 'without having to pay'
They agreed to let us live there rent-free.
Many banks are now offering interest-free overdrafts to students.
-free suffix WITHOUT
2. used at the end of words to mean 'without'
lead-free fuel
No working environment is entirely stress-free.
The journey was surprisingly hassle-free.
-friendly suffix
1. used at the end of words to mean 'not harmful'
environmentally-friendly detergent
ozone-friendly aerosols
dolphin-friendly tuna (= fish caught without harming dolphins ) .
-friendly suffix
2. used at the end of words to mean 'suitable for particular people to use'
a family-friendly restaurant
-ful suffix HAVING
1. having the stated quality to a high degree, or causing it
colourful
powerful
painful
truthful
beautiful
-ful suffix AMOUNT
2. the amount of something needed to fill the stated container or place
a spoonful of sugar
a mouthful of tea
a houseful of people
-fully suffix
in a way that shows the stated quality
powerfully
tearfully
truthfully
-goer suffix
a person who goes to the stated type of place
Restaurant-goers ought to complain more about bad food and service.
regular filmgoers
-going suffix
refers to the activity of going to the stated place
He grew up in a strict church-going family.
-grabbing suffix
getting or taking a lot of the stated thing
a money -grabbing scheme
a headline -grabbing court case (= one which is being written about a lot in newspapers)
-grader suffix US
a student in the stated class level at school
an eighth-grader
-haired suffix
with the hair described
dark-haired
short-haired
-hater suffix
someone who dislikes the stated thing
He thinks I'm a real man -hater.
-head suffix
a person with a particular strong interest or addiction
a crack-head (= someone who depends on the drug crack )
-headed suffix
having the number or type of heads mentioned
a many-headed monster
-hearted suffix
having a character or feelings of the stated type
a light-hearted play
-heartedly suffix
-heartedness suffix
-hood suffix
used to form nouns describing the state of being a particular thing
priesthood
childhood/manhood
nationhood
-humoured suffix ( US )
used for describing the state of people's feelings
The election campaign has been remarkably peaceful, even good -humoured.
-hungry suffix
having a strong wish or desire for the stated thing
power-hungry politicians
-hunter suffix CHASE
1. someone who hunts the stated animal
a fox-hunter
-hunter suffix SEARCH
2. someone who is trying to find or get the stated thing
a job-hunter
a house-hunter
bargain-hunters
-ibility suffix
used to form nouns from adjectives ending '-ible' or 'able'
accessibility
-ible suffix ( also -able )
used to form adjectives meaning 'able to be'
convertible
accessible
permissible
-ic suffix ( also )
used to form adjectives
scenic
economic
-ical suffix
added to nouns to form adjectives meaning 'relating to'
historical
political
-ics suffix
used to form nouns which refer to an area of work or study
the world of politics
the study of economics/physics/ethics
-ify , suffix
used to form verbs meaning to cause an increase in the stated quality; to become
simplify
beautify
-in suffix
used to form a noun which describes an activity in which many people take part
a sit-in/phone-in
-induced suffix
caused by the stated person or activity
a self-induced illness
work-induced stress
-ing suffix
used to form the present participle of regular verbs
calling
asking
-intentioned suffix
I'm sure he's well -intentioned - he wouldn't mean any harm.
-ion suffix ( also -ation , also -ition )
added to verbs to form nouns showing action or condition
obsession
restoration
repetition
-ish suffix FROM PLACE
1. used to form adjectives and nouns which say what country or area a person, thing or language comes from
Spanish dancing (= dancing from Spain)
Are you English (= someone from England) ?
I've always liked the Irish (= people from Ireland) .
Do you speak Swedish (= the language of Sweden) ?
-ish suffix LIKE
2. used to form adjectives which say what a person, thing or action is like
foolish
childish
-ish suffix QUITE
3. used to form adjectives to give the meaning to some degree; partly; quite
He had a sort of reddish beard.
She was oldish - about 60, I'd say.
We'll start at sevenish (= about 7 o'clock) .
-ism suffix
1. used to form nouns which describe social, political or religious beliefs, studies or ways of behaving
sexism
feminism
Buddhism
-ism suffix
2. an example of typical behaviour
That expression was a real Taylor-ism (= an example of behaving or speaking like Taylor) .
-ist suffix
used to form adjectives and nouns which describe (a person with) a particular set of beliefs or way of behaving
Marxist philosophy
a feminist
a sexist
-ista suffix
used to describe someone who is a strong supporter of another person, when added to the name of that person
Clintonistas
-ite suffix
used for a person who supports particular beliefs, actions or ideas, especially when added to the name of the person who is the origin of the ideas
a Thatcherite
a Reaganite
-ity suffix
added to adjectives to form nouns referring to a state or quality
brutality
legality
-ive suffix ( also , also , also )
added to verbs to form adjectives meaning showing the ability to perform the activity represented by the verb
imaginative
descriptive
-ization , UK usually -isation suffix
used to form nouns from some verbs
the modernization of the office
-ize , UK usually -ise suffix
added to adjectives to form verbs meaning to cause to become
to modernize (= to make modern)
to centralize
-led suffix
planned or controlled by a particular person or thing
child-led activities (= children deciding what to do)
-legged suffix
having the number or type or legs mentioned
a three-legged stool
a six-legged creature
-length suffix DISTANCE
1. long enough to reach the stated place
a knee-length skirt
shoulder-length hair
-length suffix TIME
2. of the stated amount of time
a full-length movie (= one which has not been shortened)
-less suffix
used to form adjectives meaning 'without (the thing mentioned)'
meaningless
friendless
-let suffix
small, not very important
piglet
-like suffix
like the thing mentioned
The paper criticized what it described as the animal-like behaviour of the football fans.
There was a large, ball-like structure on top of the building.
childlike trust
a cabbage-like vegetable
-load suffix
all the people or goods in the stated type of vehicle or container
a coachload of football fans
Busloads of tourists pour into this place in the summer.
Truckloads of food and medical supplies arrived in the refugee camp.
-ly suffix ADVERB
1. in the stated way
quickly
carefully
angrily
loudly
-ly suffix ADVERB
2. when considered in the stated way
Personally (= in my opinion) , I don't think animals should be killed for their fur.
This is an environmentally (= in relation to the environment) disastrous proposal.
-ly suffix ADVERB
3. regularly after the stated period of time
a weekly/monthly meeting
-ly suffix ADJECTIVE
4. like the stated person or thing
fatherly advice
priestly duties
cowardly behaviour
-ly suffix ADJECTIVE
5. describes one of a series of events which happen with the stated regular period of time between each
a daily shower
a weekly meeting
a yearly check-up
-mad suffix UK
-made suffix
produced in the stated way or place
On the bottom of the watch it said 'Swiss-made'.
-maker suffix
a person or machine which makes the stated thing
a film-maker
a dressmaker
a watchmaker
car-makers
policy-makers
a coffee/tea-maker
an ice-maker
-man suffix
having the nationality or job mentioned, or (of a group or vehicle) containing the number of people mentioned
an Irishman
a policeman
businessmen
a five-man team
a two-man helicopter
-mania suffix
a very strong interest in the stated thing, especially among a large group of people
Beatle-mania swept Britain in the 1960s.
-mannered suffix
describes a person with the behaviour or character of the stated type
an ill/bad -mannered boy
He was a mild- mannered (= gentle and calm) young man.
I noticed how well -mannered her children were.
-matched suffix
-mate suffix
used to show that two people share a space or are involved in the same activity
flat mate
team-mate
workmate
-meister suffix informal
used in a description showing what someone is famous for doing or what someone does very well
funk-meister
the horror-meister, Stephen King
-ment suffix
used to form nouns which refer to an action or process or its result
a great achievement
successful management
a disappointment
-minded suffix
having a particular character, interest or way of thinking about things
She's very strong/independent-minded (= She has a very strong/independent character) .
I don't imagine that he's very politically-minded (= interested in politics) .
-monger suffix mainly disapproving
a person who encourages a particular activity, especially one which causes trouble
They're nothing but a bunch of war-mongers.
-mongering suffix
They accused him of rumour-mongering/scandal-mongering.
-most suffix
used to mean 'furthest'
John O'Groats is the northernmost part of the British mainland (= the part that is farther to the north than any other part) .
-mouthed suffix
having a mouth or way of talking of the stated type
a loud-mouthed teenager (= talking very loudly, especially to attract attention)
a foul -mouthed drunk (= often swearing)
We stared open -mouthed (= in surprise) as the elephant walked slowly down Fairview Close.
-natured suffix
having this type of character
He's such a good-natured/sweet-natured little boy.
-necked suffix
refers to the type of neck someone or something has, or to the style of a piece of clothing around the neck or the way that it is worn
a stocky, stiff-necked little man
a round-necked jumper
an open-necked shirt
-ness suffix
added to adjectives to form nouns which refer to a quality or a condition
happiness
sadness
nervousness
selfishness
kindness
-nosed suffix
having a nose of the type mentioned
sharp/snub/hook-nosed
a blunt-nosed missile
-octane suffix
having the stated quality in relation to power or (of petrol, etc.) octane number
Racing cars use a high -octane (= powerful) fuel.
-odd suffix informal
used after a number, especially a number that can be divided by ten, to show that the exact number is not known
I'd say Robert's about forty-odd - maybe forty-five.
-oholic suffix
-aholic
-ological suffix
used to form adjectives; belonging or relating to a particular type of scientific study
biological
technological
-ologist suffix
used to form nouns; a specialist in a particular area of scientific study
archaeologist
-ology suffix
the scientific study of a particular subject
geology
climatology
-orientated suffix UK ( US -oriented )
showing the direction in which something is aimed
She wants to turn the company into a profit -orientated organization.
-ous suffix
added to nouns to form adjectives which refer to a quality or condition
dangerous
ambitious
-owned suffix
belonging to or controlled by
a family-owned business
state-owned industry
-pack suffix
used in combination with an amount to show that that many of a particular type of goods have been wrapped and are being sold together
a six-pack of beer
a twin-pack of soap
a multi-pack of toilet paper
-packed suffix
full of the thing described
a fun-packed day
an action-packed film
-penny suffix UK
used in the past with numbers to show how many pence something cost
a fourpenny ice-cream
-person suffix
used to combine with nouns to form new nouns referring to the particular job or duty that someone has. It is often used instead of -man or -woman to avoid making an unnecessary statement about the sex of the particular person
spokesperson
chairperson
business people
-petalled , US usually suffix
having the number or colour of petals that is mentioned
a 5-petalled flower
a white-petalled rose
-phile suffix
someone who enjoys a particular thing or has it as a hobby, or who likes a particular place
A bibliophile likes books and an oenophile enjoys wine.
An Anglophile likes England or Britain.
-phobe suffix
someone who hates something
An Anglophobe is a person who hates England or Britain.
a commitment-phobe
-phobia suffix
Xenophobia means hatred of foreigners.
-piece suffix
with the number of pieces mentioned
a five-piece band (= with five players)
-pitched suffix
at the stated level or degree
a high-pitched voice/scream

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