Thursday, 27 February 2014


1. [ I ] to do something for a particular purpose, or to behave in the stated way
[ + to infinitive ] Engineers acted quickly to repair the damaged pipes.
She acted without thinking.
The anaesthetic acted (= had an effect) quickly.
Who is acting for/on behalf of (= who is representing) the defendant?
He acted as if he'd never met me before.
Don't be so silly - you're acting like a child!
He never acts on other people's advice (= does what other people suggest) .
Acting on impulse (= without thinking first) can get you into a lot of trouble.
adapt verb CHANGE
1. [ T ] to change something to suit different conditions or uses
Many software companies have adapted popular programs to the new operating system.
The recipe here is a pork roast adapted from Caroline O'Neill's book 'Louisiana Kitchen'.
[ + to infinitive ] We had to adapt our plans to fit Jack's timetable.
The play had been adapted for (= changed to make it suitable for) children.
Davies is busy adapting Brinkworth's latest novel for television.
adjudge verb [ T often passive ] formal
to announce a decision or consider something, especially officially
[ + to infinitive ] Half an hour into the game Paterson was adjudged to have fouled Jackson and was sent off.
[ + noun or adjective ] In October 1990, Mirchandani was adjudged bankrupt.
Fairbanks was adjudged the winner.
adjure verb [ T + to infinitive ] formal
to ask or order someone to do something
The judge adjured him to answer truthfully.
admit verb -tt- ACCEPT
1. [ I or T ] to agree that something is true, especially unwillingly
He admitted his guilt/mistake.
[ + ( that ) ] She admitted (that) she had made a mistake.
[ + -ing verb ] She admitted mak ing a mistake.
At first he denied stealing the money but he later admitted (to) it.
I wasn't entirely honest with him, I admit, but I didn't actually tell him any lies.
[ + to infinitive ] The new law was generally admitted to be difficult to enforce.
admonish verb formal
2. [ T + to infinitive ] to advise someone to do something
Her teacher admonished her to work harder for her exams.
advise verb
1. [ I or T ] to give someone advice
[ + to infinitive ] I think I'd advise him to leave the company.
His doctor advised him against smoking.
I'd strongly advise against making a sudden decision.
[ + that ] They're advising that children be kept out of the sun altogether.
[ + -ing verb ] I'd advise wait ing until tomorrow.
[ + question word ] She advised us wh en to come.
She advises the President (= gives information and suggests types of action) on African policy.
You would be well- advised to (= It would be wise for you to) have the appropriate vaccinations before you go abroad.
agree verb SAME OPINION
1. [ I or T ] to have the same opinion, or to accept a suggestion or idea
Ann and I never seem to agree.
I agree with you on this issue.
My father and I don't agree about/on very much.
[ + that ] I agree that he should be invited.
[ + question word ] Experts seem unable to agree wh ether the drug is safe or not.
[ + speech ] "You're absolutely right," agreed Jake.
I suggested that we should meet, and they agreed (= said yes) .
[ + to infinitive ] The bank has agreed (= is willing) to lend me £5000.
aim verb INTEND
1. [ I ] to intend
[ + to infinitive ] I aim to be a millionaire by the time I'm 35.
We are aiming for (= planning to achieve) a 50% share of the German market.
allege verb [ T ] formal
to state that someone has done something illegal or wrong without giving proof
[ + ( that ) ] The two men allege (that) the police forced them to make false confessions.
[ + to infinitive ] Mr Smythe is alleged to have been at the centre of an international drugs ring.
[ + that ] It was alleged that Johnson had struck Mr Rahim on the head.
1. [ T ] to make it possible for someone to do something, or to not prevent something from happening; give permission
[ + to infinitive ] Do you think Dad will allow you to go to Jamie's party?
You're not allowed to talk during the exam.
Her proposals would allow (= make it possible for) more people to stay in full-time education.
The loophole has allowed hundreds of drink-drivers to avoid prosecution.
The government has refused to allow foreign journalists into the area for several weeks.
Prisoners have been moved to allow the demolition of part of the prison.
Pets aren't allowed in this hotel.
[ + -ing verb ] Smok ing is not allowed in this restaurant.
[ + two objects ] He didn't allow us enough time to finish the test.
Red Cross officials were allowed access to the prison for the first time a few days ago.
UK The referee decided to allow (= officially accept) the goal.
[ R ] At the weekend I allow myself (= I give myself the special pleasure of having) a box of chocolates.
How much time do you allow yourself (= make available to yourself) to get ready in the morning?
amaze verb [ T ]
to cause someone to be extremely surprised
[ + question word ] I was amazed by how well he looked.
You've done all your homework in an hour? You amaze me.
[ + that ] It amazes me that she's got the energy for all those parties.
[ + to infinitive ] It amazes me to think that Anna is now in charge of the company.
It amazes me how you can put up with living in such a dirty house.
It never ceases to amaze me how he can talk for so long without ever saying anything interesting.
appeal verb REQUEST
1. [ I ] to make a serious or formal request, especially to the public, for money or help
They're appealing for clothes and blankets to send to the devastated region.
The police are appealing to the public for any information about the missing girl.
I tried to appeal to (= ask for support based on) his sense of loyalty, stressing how good the company had been to him.
[ + to infinitive ] Church leaders have appealed to the government to halt the war.
appear verb SEEM
3. [ L or I not continuous ] to seem
You've got to appear ( to be ) calm in an interview even if you're terrified underneath.
To people who don't know him he probably appears ( to be ) rather unfriendly.
Things aren't always what they appear to be .
[ + to infinitive ] She appears to actually like the man, which I find incredible.
There appears to be some mistake.
[ + ( that ) ] It appears (that) she left the party alone.
It appears to me (that) (= I think that) we need to make some changes.
formal It would appear (that) (= It seems that) nobody on board the aircraft actually had a licence to fly it.
[ + adverb or preposition ] It appears as if/as though I was wrong.
Everything was not as it appeared - secret deals had been done.
I know how it must appear, but it's not really as bad as it looks.
"Has he left?" " It appears not/so ."
[ after so ] "I think we're late." " So it appears."
apply verb REQUEST
1. [ I ] to request something, usually officially, especially by writing or sending in a form
By the time I saw the job advertised it was already too late to apply.
Please apply in writing to the address below.
We've applied to a charitable organization for a grant for the project.
[ + to infinitive ] Tim's applied to join the police.
appoint verb CHOOSE
1. [ T ] to choose someone officially for a job or responsibility
We've appointed three new teachers this year.
He's just been appointed (as) director of the publishing division.
[ + to infinitive ] A commission has just been appointed to investigate fraud claims.
arrange verb PLAN
1. [ I or T ] to plan or prepare for; to organize
I'm trying to arrange my work so that I can have a couple of days off next week.
The meeting has been arranged for Wednesday.
[ + to infinitive ] They arranged to have dinner the following month.
I've already arranged with him to meet at the cinema.
She's arranged for her son to have swimming lessons.
[ + that ] I'd deliberately arranged that they should arrive at the same time.
[ + question word ] We haven't yet arranged wh en to meet.
ask verb QUESTION
1. [ I or T ] to put a question to someone, or to request an answer from someone
[ + two objects ] She asked me a question.
Can I ask you a favour?/ formal Can I ask a favour of you?
She asked a question about Welsh history.
She asked me about Welsh history.
She asked about Welsh history.
[ + question word ] I've no idea what time the train leaves. Ask the guard wh ether he knows.
I asked the guard the time of the train's departure.
I asked wh en the train would leave.
[ + speech ] "What time does the train leave?" I asked.
If you need any help, please don't hesitate to ask.
You should ask (your accountant) for some financial advice.
[ + to infinitive ] You should ask your accountant to give you some financial advice.
I asked to see my accountant.
I'd like to ask your advice/opinion on a financial matter.
You have to ask permission to leave.
[ + that ] formal The solicitor asked that her client (should) be allowed to make a telephone call.
formal We ask that any faulty goods (should) be returned in their original packaging.
ask verb INVITE
2. [ T ] to request or invite someone to go somewhere with you or to come to your home
UK I've asked David to the party.
[ + to infinitive ] US I've asked David to come to the party.
"Are you going to Muriel's party?" "No, I haven't been asked."
Ian's asked us over for dinner next Friday.
UK Ian's asked us round to/for dinner next Friday.
In fact they've asked us to stay for the whole weekend.
assume verb [ T ] ACCEPT
1. to accept something to be true without question or proof
[ + ( that ) ] I assumed (that) you knew each other because you went to the same school.
Let's assume (that) they're coming and make plans on that basis.
[ + to infinitive ] We can't assume the suspects to be guilty simply because they've decided to remain silent.
We mustn't assume the suspects' guilt.
attempt verb [ T ]
to try to do something, especially something difficult
[ + to infinitive ] He attempted to escape through a window.
He attempted a joke, but no one laughed.
There's no point in even attempting an explanation - he'll never listen.
authorize , UK usually authorise verb [ T ]
to give official permission for something to happen, or to give someone official permission to do something
Who authorized this expenditure?
[ + to infinitive ] I authorized my bank to pay her £3000.
badger verb [ T ]
to persuade someone by telling them repeatedly to do something, or to question someone repeatedly
Stop badgering me - I'll do it when I'm ready.
[ + into + -ing verb ] She's been badgering me into do ing some exercise.
[ + to infinitive ] Every time we go into a shop, the kids badger me to buy them sweets.
bail verb MONEY
2. [ T ] If someone accused of a crime is bailed, they are released until their trial after paying bail to the court.
She was yesterday bailed for three weeks on drink-driving offences.
[ + to infinitive ] He was bailed to appear at the Magistrates' Court next month.
be verb being , was , were , been DESCRIPTION
1. [ L ] used to say something about a person, thing or state, to show a permanent or temporary quality, state, job, etc.
He is rich.
It's cold today.
I'm Andy.
That's all for now.
What do you want to be (= What job do you want to do) when you grow up?
These books are (= cost) 50p each.
Being afraid of the dark, she always slept with the light on.
Never having been ill himself, he wasn't a sympathetic listener.
Be quiet!
Do be quiet!
[ + -ing verb ] The problem is decid ing what to do.
[ + to infinitive ] The hardest part will be to find a replacement.
[ + that ] The general feeling is that she should be asked to leave.
It 's not that I don't like her - it 's just that we rarely agree on anything!
be verb being , was , were , been ALLOW
4. [ + to infinitive ] used to say that someone should or must do something
You're to sit in the corner and keep quiet.
Their mother said they were not to (= not allowed to) play near the river.
There's no money left - what are we to do?
be verb being , was , were , been FUTURE
5. [ + to infinitive ] formal used to show that something will happen in the future
We are to (= We are going to) visit Australia in the spring.
She was never to see (= She never saw) her brother again.
be verb being , was , were , been FUTURE
6. [ + to infinitive ] used in conditional sentences to say what might happen
If I were to refuse they'd be very annoyed.
formal Were I to refuse they'd be very annoyed.
be verb being , was , were , been CAN
7. [ + to infinitive ] used to say what can happen
The exhibition of modern prints is currently to be seen at the City Gallery.
bear verb bore , borne or US ALSO born ACCEPT
1. [ T ] to accept, tolerate or endure especially something unpleasant
The strain must have been enormous but she bore it well.
Tell me now! I can't bear the suspense !
It's your decision - you must bear the responsibility if things go wrong.
[ + to infinitive ] He couldn't bear to see the dog in pain.
[ + -ing verb ] I can't bear be ing bored.
begin verb [ I or T ] beginning , began , begun
1. to start to be, do, etc.
I began the book six months ago, but I can't seem to finish it.
I have so much to tell you, I don't know where to begin.
What time does the concert begin?
The bridge was begun five years ago and the estimated cost has already doubled.
The film they want to watch begins at seven.
If you want to learn to play a musical instrument, it might be a good idea to begin on something simple.
The word 'cat' begins with the letter 'c'.
The meeting began promisingly , but then things started to go wrong.
[ + -ing verb ] Jane has just begun learn ing to drive.
[ + to infinitive ] After waiting for half an hour she was beginning to get angry.
[ + speech ] "Well, " he began (= started by saying) . "I don't quite know how to tell you this."
bid verb OFFER
3. [ T + to infinitive ] bidding , bid , bid If someone bids to do something, they compete with other people to do it
Paris is bidding to host the next Olympics.
bother verb MAKE AN EFFORT
1. [ I or T ] to make the effort to do something
[ + to infinitive ] He hasn't even bothered to write.
You could have phoned us but you just didn't bother.
[ + -ing verb ] Don't bother mak ing the bed - I'll do it later.
[ + -ing verb or + to infinitive ] You'd have found it if you'd bothered look ing/to look.
You won't get any credit for doing it, so why bother?
bribe verb [ T ]
to try to make someone do something for you by giving them money, presents or something else that they want
He bribed immigration officials and entered the country illegally.
[ + to infinitive ] They bribed the waiter to find them a better table.
burn verb burnt or burned , burnt or burned WANT
8. [ + to infinitive ] to want to do something very much
She was burning to tell us her news.
burst verb burst , burst
2. [ I ] to feel a strong emotion, or strong wish to do something
I knew they were bursting with curiosity but I said nothing.
[ + to infinitive ] informal I'm bursting to go to the loo!
Tom was bursting to tell everyone the news.
campaign verb [ I ]
to organize a series of activities to try to achieve something
[ + to infinitive ] They've been campaigning for years to get him out of prison.
He's spending a lot of his time at the moment campaigning for/on behalf of the Conservative Party.
They're busy campaigning against the building of a new motorway near here.
care verb [ I ] WANT
6. formal used in polite offers and suggestions
Would you care for a drink?
[ + to infinitive ] Would you care to join us for dinner?
cease verb [ I or T ] slightly formal
to stop something
Whether the protests will cease remains to be seen.
The company has decided to cease all UK operations after this year.
[ + to infinitive ] Workplace nurseries will cease to be liable for tax.
chance verb LUCK
2. [ I ] old-fashioned or literary to happen or do something by chance
[ + to infinitive ] They chanced to be in the restaurant when I arrived.
I chanced on/upon (= found unexpectedly) some old love letters in a drawer.
Ten years after leaving school, we chanced on/upon (= unexpectedly met) each other in Regent Street.
check verb EXAMINE
1. [ I or T ] to make certain that something or someone is correct, safe or suitable by examining it or them quickly
You should always check your oil, water and tyres before taking your car on a long trip.
Customs stopped us and checked (= searched) our bags for alcohol and cigarettes.
After I'd finished the exam, I checked my answers for mistakes.
The doctor will call next week to check on your progress.
My wife checks on (= visits) our elderly neighbour every few days to make sure that he's alright.
[ + ( that ) ] I always check (that) I've shut the windows before I leave the house.
[ + question word ] I rang them yesterday to check wh en they were arriving.
He double- checked all the doors (= checked them all twice) before leaving the house.
[ + to infinitive ] If you're near the garage, could you check to see (= ask) if the car's ready?
If you're unsure of your legal rights, I would check with (= ask) a lawyer.
choose verb [ I or T ] chose , chosen
1. to decide what you want from two or more things or possibilities
She had to choose between the two men in her life.
Danny, come here and choose your ice cream.
He chose a shirt from the many in his wardrobe.
[ + question word ] It's difficult choosing where to live.
[ + two objects ] I've chosen Luis a present/I've chosen a present for Luis.
Yesterday the selectors chose Dales as the team's new captain.
[ + object + to infinitive ] The firm's directors chose Emma to be the new production manager.
[ + to infinitive ] Katie chose (= decided) to stay away from work that day.
claim verb SAY
1. [ T ] to say that something is true or is a fact, although you cannot prove it and other people might not believe it
[ + ( that ) ] The company claims (that) it is not responsible for the pollution in the river.
[ + to infinitive ] He claims to have met the President, but I don't believe him.
All parties have claimed success in yesterday's elections.
An unknown terrorist group has claimed responsibility for this morning's bomb attack.
clamour UK , US clamor verb [ I ]
to make a loud complaint or demand
The children were all clamouring for attention.
[ + to infinitive ] She clamours to go home as soon as she gets to school.
combine verb
1. [ I or T ] to (cause to) exist together, or join together to make a single thing or group
None of us has much money so let's combine what we've got.
Sickness, combined with (= together with) terrible weather, contrived to ruin the trip.
The two countries combined against their common enemy.
[ + to infinitive ] These normally harmless substances combine to form a highly poisonous gas.
come verb came , come MOVE TO SPEAKER
1. [ I ] to move or travel towards the speaker or with the speaker
Are you coming with me?
There's a car coming!
Can you come to my party?
Here comes Adam.
She's come 500 km (= has travelled 500 km) to be here with us tonight.
If you're ever in Oxford, come and visit us.
We came by car.
Your father will come for (= to collect) you at 4 o'clock.
Come forward a bit and stand on the line.
I've come straight from the airport.
The door opened and a nurse came into the room.
[ + to infinitive ] A man's coming to mend the boiler this afternoon.
As he came towards me, I could see he'd been crying.
He thought we'd been picking his apples and came after (= chased) us with a stick.
[ + -ing verb ] He came rush ing over when I fell.
come verb came , come MOVE TO LISTENER
2. [ I ] to move or travel in the direction of the person being spoken to
"Sal, are you ready?" "Coming."
I'll come and pick you up in the car if you like.
I've come for (= come to collect) your census form.
[ + to infinitive ] I've come to read the gas meter.
command verb ORDER
1. [ I or T ] to give someone an order
[ + to infinitive ] The officer commanded his men to shoot.
[ + that ] He commanded that the troops (should) cross the water.
compel verb [ T ] -ll-
1. to force someone to do something
[ + to infinitive ] As a school boy he was compelled to wear shorts even in winter.
formal The new circumstances compelled a change in policy.
condition verb [ T ]
1. to train or influence a person or animal mentally so that they do or expect a particular thing without thinking about it
a conditioned reflex/response
[ + to infinitive ] Pavlov conditioned dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell.
Women were conditioned to expect lower wages than men.
configure verb [ T ]
to arrange something or change the controls on a computer or other device so that it can be used in a particular way
[ + to infinitive ] Some software can be configured to prevent children from giving out their phone numbers on the Internet.
connive verb [ I ]
1. to plan secretly and dishonestly for something to happen which will be to your advantage
Civil servants and ministers were accused of conniving with the company in the supply of arms to Sierra Leone.
[ + to infinitive ] They connived to break the school rules at every opportunity.
consent verb [ I ]
to agree to do something, or to allow someone to do something
[ + to infinitive ] Very reluctantly, I've consented to lend her my car.
My aunt never married because her father wouldn't consent to her marriage.
conspire verb [ I ]
to plan secretly with other people to do something bad, illegal or against someone's wishes
[ + to infinitive ] He felt that his colleagues were conspiring together to remove him from his job.
As girls, the sisters used to conspire with each other against their brother.
continue verb
1. [ I or T ] to keep happening, existing or doing something, or to cause something or someone to do this
[ + to infinitive ] It's said that as the boat went down the band continued to play.
[ + -ing verb ] If she continues drink ing like that, I'll have to carry her home.
Do you intend to continue (with) your studies?
If the rain continues, we'll have to cancel tonight's plans.
Sally Palmer will be continuing as chairperson this autumn.
The article continues/is continued on page ten.
contract verb AGREEMENT
3. [ I or T ] to make a legal agreement with someone to do work or to have work done for you
[ + to infinitive ] They have just contracted our company to build shelters for the homeless.
contrive verb [ T ]
1. to arrange a situation or event, or arrange for something to happen, using clever planning
Couldn't you contrive a meeting between them? I think they'd be ideally suited.
[ + to infinitive ] Somehow she contrived to get tickets for the concert.
convince verb [ T ]
to persuade someone or make them certain
He managed to convince the jury of his innocence.
[ + ( that ) ] It's useless trying to convince her (that) she doesn't need to lose any weight.
[ + to infinitive ] I hope this will convince you to change your mind.
dare verb BE BRAVE/RUDE
1. [ I not continuous ] to be brave enough to do something difficult or dangerous, or to be rude or silly enough to do something that you have no right to do
I was going to ask if his dog was any better, but I didn't dare in case it had died.
[ + ( to ) infinitive ] Everyone in the office complains that he smells awful, but nobody dares (to) mention it to him.
Do you dare (to) tell him the news?
[ + infinitive without to ] I wouldn't dare have a party in my flat in case the neighbours complained.
Dare you tell him the news?
I daren't/don't dare think how much it's going to cost.
I'd never dare (to) talk to my mother the way Ben talks to his.
[ + to infinitive ] He was under attack for daring to criticize the Prime Minister.
dare verb ASK
2. [ T ] to ask someone to do something which involves risk
Wear the low-cut blouse with your pink shorts - go on, I dare you!
[ + to infinitive ] I dare you to ask him to dance.
decide verb
1. [ I or T ] to choose something, especially after thinking carefully about several possibilities
They have to decide by next Friday.
I don't mind which one we have - you decide.
[ + to infinitive ] In the end, we decided to go to the theatre.
[ + ( that ) ] She decided (that) she would retire to the country.
[ + question word ] I can't decide wh at to do.
He can't decide wh ether to buy it.
The committee decided in favour of (= made a formal judgment to choose) the cheapest option.
decline verb REFUSE
2. [ I or T ] formal to refuse
I invited him to the meeting but he declined.
He declined my offer.
[ + to infinitive ] They declined to tell me how they had got my address.
demand verb [ T ] REQUEST
1. to ask for something forcefully, in a way that shows that you do not expect to be refused
I demanded an explanation.
The car workers' union is demanding a 7% pay rise this year.
He has always demanded the highest standards of behaviour from his children.
[ + speech ] "And where do you think you're going?" demanded the police officer.
[ + to infinitive ] I demand to see the manager.
[ + that ] She demanded that he return the books he borrowed from her.
depress verb [ T ] CAUSE SADNESS
1. to cause someone to feel unhappy and without hope for the future
This weather depresses me.
[ + -ing verb ] Doesn't it depress you listen ing to the news these days?
[ + to infinitive ] It depresses me to think that I'll probably still be doing exactly the same job in ten years' time.
depute verb [ T ] formal
1. to ask someone to act or speak for you
[ + to infinitive ] I've deputed Lara Brown to speak for me at the conference.
deserve verb [ T not continuous ]
to have earned or to be given something because of the way you have behaved or the qualities you have
After all that hard work, you deserve a holiday.
Chris deserves our special thanks for all his efforts.
I hope they get the punishment they deserve.
[ + to infinitive ] They certainly deserved to win that match.
design verb INTEND
2. [ T usually passive ] to intend
This dictionary is designed for advanced learners of English.
[ + to infinitive ] These measures are designed to reduce pollution.
designate verb [ T ]
1. to choose someone officially to do a particular job
Traditionally, the president designates his or her successor.
Thompson has been designated (as/to be) team captain.
[ + to infinitive ] She has been designated to organize the meeting.
desire verb [ T not continuous ] formal WANT
1. to want something, especially strongly
I desire only to be left in peace.
The hotel had everything you could possibly desire.
What does her Ladyship desire me to do/desire of me?
[ + to infinitive ] The President desires to meet the new Prime Minister.
detail verb ORDER
2. [ T + to infinitive often passive ] to order someone, often a small group of soldiers or workers, to perform a particular task
Four soldiers were detailed to check the road for troops.
determine verb DECIDE
2. [ T ] formal to make a strong decision
[ + that ] She determined that one day she would be an actor.
[ + to infinitive ] On leaving jail, Joe determined to reform.
discipline verb CONTROL
2. [ T or R ] to teach someone to behave in a controlled way
[ + to infinitive ] I'm trying to discipline myself to eat less chocolate.
discover verb
1. [ T ] to find information, a place or an object, especially for the first time
Who discovered America?
We searched all morning for the missing papers and finally discovered them in a drawer.
[ + question word ] Scientists have discovered how to predict an earthquake.
[ + ( that ) ] She discovered ( that ) her husband was having an affair.
[ + to infinitive ] Following a routine checkup, Mrs Mason was discovered to have heart disease.
[ + object + -ing verb ] The boss discovered him (= unexpectedly found him) steal ing money from the till.
do verb did , done BE ACCEPTABLE
15. [ I or T ] to be acceptable, suitable or enough (for)
Will this room do or would you prefer one with a shower?
This kind of behaviour just won't do.
[ + to infinitive ] It doesn't do to criticize your parents.
I haven't got any grapefruit juice, but I've got some orange juice. Will that do (you)?
"Is that enough potato, or would you like some more?" "That'll do (= be enough for) me, thanks."
doom verb [ T usually passive ]
to make someone or something certain to do or experience something unpleasant, or to make something bad certain to happen
[ + to infinitive ] Are we doomed to repeat the mistakes of the past?
Mounting debts doomed the factory to closure.
drive verb drove , driven FORCE
3. [ T ] to force someone or something to go somewhere or do something
They used dogs to drive the sheep into a pen.
By the end of the year, most of the occupying troops had been driven from the city.
For the second time in ten years, the government has driven the economy into deep and damaging recession.
A post had been driven (= hit hard) into the ground near the tree.
[ + to infinitive ] In the end, it was his violent behaviour that drove her to leave home.
elect verb [ T ]
1. to decide on or choose, especially to choose a person for a particular job, by voting
The Government is elected for a five-year term of office.
[ + as + noun ] We elected him as our representative.
[ + noun ] She was elected Chair of the Board of Governors.
[ + to infinitive ] The group elected one of its members to be their spokesperson.
employ verb PROVIDE JOB
1. [ T ] to have someone work or do a job for you and pay them for it
How many people does your company employ?
Can't we employ someone as an assistant to help with all this paperwork?
[ + to infinitive ] We've employed a market researcher to find out what people really want from a cable TV system.
More people are now employed in service industries than in manufacturing.
empower verb [ T ]
to give someone official authority or the freedom to do something
[ + to infinitive ] This amendment empowers the president to declare an emergency for a wide range of reasons.
The first step in empowering the poorest sections of society is making sure they vote.
enable verb [ T ]
to make someone able to do something, or to make something possible
[ + to infinitive ] Computerization should enable us to cut production costs by half.
encourage verb [ T ]
1. to make someone more likely to do something, or to make something more likely to happen
[ T + to infinitive ] We were encouraged to learn foreign languages at school.
The council is encouraging the development of the property for both employment and recreation.
endeavour UK , US endeavor verb [ I + to infinitive ]
to try to do something
Engineers are endeavouring to locate the source of the problem.
engage verb EMPLOY
1. [ T ] mainly UK formal to employ someone
[ + to infinitive ] I have engaged a secretary to deal with all my paperwork.
We're engaging the services of a professional administrator.
enjoin verb [ T ]
1. formal to tell someone to do something or to behave in a particular way
[ + to infinitive ] We were all enjoined to be on our best behaviour.
He enjoined (= suggested) caution.
entice verb [ T ]
to persuade someone to do something by offering them something pleasant
The adverts entice the customer into buy ing things they don't really want.
People are being enticed away from the profession by higher salaries elsewhere.
[ + to infinitive ] A smell of coffee in the doorway enticed people to enter the shop.
entitle verb [ T ] ALLOW
1. to give someone the right to do or have something
Being unemployed entitles you to free medical treatment.
[ + to infinitive ] The employer is entitled to ask for references.
entreat verb [ T ]
to try very hard to persuade someone to do something
[ + to infinitive ] We would spend every meal time entreating the child to eat her vegetables.
exhort verb [ T + to infinitive ] formal
to strongly encourage or try to persuade someone to do something
The governor exhorted the prisoners not to riot.
expect verb THINK
1. [ T ] to think or believe something will happen, or someone will arrive
We are expecting a lot of applicants for the job.
[ + ( that ) ] I expect (that) you'll find it somewhere in your bedroom.
I expect (that) he'd have left anyway.
[ + to infinitive ] He didn't expect to see me.
The financial performance of the business is fully expected (= almost certain) to improve.
We were half expecting you not to come back.
expect verb DEMAND
3. [ T ] to think that someone should behave in a particular way or do a particular thing
I expect punctuality from my students.
[ + to infinitive ] Borrowers are expected to (= should) return books on time.
fail verb NOT SUCCEED
1. [ I ] to not succeed in what you are trying to achieve or are expected to do
She moved to London in the hope of finding work as a model, but failed.
This method of growing tomatoes never fails.
He failed in his attempt to break the record.
[ + to infinitive ] She failed to reach the Wimbledon Final this year.
The reluctance of either side to compromise means that the talks are doomed to (= will certainly) fail.
fail verb NOT DO
4. [ I ] to not do something which you should do
[ + to infinitive ] He failed to arrive on time.
The club had been promised a grant from the council, but the money failed to (= did not) materialize.
You couldn't fail to be (= It is impossible that you would not be) affected by the film.
I'd be failing in my duty if I didn't tell you about the risks involved in the project.
fancy verb IMAGINE
4. [ I or T ] to imagine or think that something is so
[ + ( that ) ] UK I fancied (that) I saw something moving in the corner.
[ R ] He fancies himself as a bit of a singer.
[ + to infinitive ] Who do you fancy to win the Cup this year?
UK old-fashioned This isn't the first time this has happened, I fancy.
fear verb
2. [ T; not continuous ] formal to be worried or frightened that something bad might happen or might have happened
[ + ( that ) ] Police fear (that) the couple may have drowned.
formal It is feared (that) as many as two hundred passengers may have died in the crash.
We huddled together, fearing we might be killed.
[ + to infinitive ] Fearing to go herself, she sent her son to find out the news.
feint verb [ I or T ]
(especially in football or boxing ) to pretend to move, or to make a move, in a particular direction in order to deceive a competitor
[ + to infinitive ] Callas feinted to pass the ball and then shot it into the net.
He feinted a shot to the left.
flock verb [ I usually + adv/prep ]
to move or come together in large numbers
Hundreds of people flocked to the football match.
[ + to infinitive ] Crowds of people flocked to see the Picasso exhibition.
forbid verb [ T ] forbidding , forbade or old use forbad , forbidden old use
to refuse to allow something, especially officially, or to prevent a particular plan of action by making it impossible
The law forbids the sale of cigarettes to people under the age of 16.
[ + to infinitive ] He's obviously quite embarrassed about it because he forbade me to tell anyone.
He is forbidden from leav ing the country.
force verb [ T ] GIVE NO CHOICE
1. to make something happen or make someone do something difficult, unpleasant or unusual, especially by threatening or not offering the possibility of choice
[ R + to infinitive ] I really have to force my self to be pleasant to him.
[ + to infinitive ] You can't force her to make a decision.
Hospitals are being forced to close departments because of lack of money.
You could tell he was having to force back the tears (= stop himself from crying) .
I didn't actually want any more dessert, but Julia forced it on me (= made me accept it) .
[ R ] I couldn't stay at their flat - I'd feel as if I was forcing my self on them (= making them allow me to stay) .
You never tell me how you're feeling - I have to force it out of you (= make you tell me) !
forecast verb [ T ] forecast or forecasted , forecast or forecasted
to say what you expect to happen in the future
They forecast a large drop in unemployment over the next two years.
Snow has been forecast for tonight.
[ + to infinitive ] Oil prices are forecast to increase by less than 2% this year.
forget verb forgetting , forgot , forgotten NOT DO
3. [ I + to infinitive T ] to not remember to do something
Don't forget to lock the door.
Dad's always forgetting (to take) his pills.
get verb getting , got , got or US gotten START TO BE
9. [ L ] to become or start to be
He gets really upset if you mention his baldness.
Is your cold getting any better?
Your coffee's getting cold.
After a while you get used to all the noise.
You're getting quite a big boy now, aren't you!
[ + to infinitive ] How did you get to be a belly dancer?
get verb getting , got , got or US gotten CAUSE
11. [ T ] to cause something to happen, or cause someone or something to do something
[ + adjective ] She had to get the kids ready for school.
[ + past participle ] I'm trying to get this article finish ed for Thursday.
We get our milk deliver ed .
[ + -ing verb ] Haven't you got the photocopier work ing yet?
[ + to infinitive ] I can't get my computer to work!
get verb getting , got , got or US gotten HAVE CHANCE
18. [ I + to infinitive ] to have the chance to do something
I never get to see her now that she's left the company.
go verb going , went , gone MOVE/TRAVEL
3. [ I ] to move or travel somewhere in order to do something
[ + -ing verb ] We go shopp ing every Friday night.
I've never gone ski ing .
They've gone for a walk, but they should be back soon.
[ + to infinitive ] She's gone to meet Brian at the station.
There's a good film on at the Odeon. Shall we go?
gratify verb [ T ]
to please someone, or to satisfy a wish or need
We were gratified by the response to our appeal.
[ + to infinitive ] He was gratified to see how well his students had done.
groom verb [ T ] PREPARE
2. to prepare someone for a special job or activity
She was being groomed for leadership.
[ + to infinitive ] My boss is grooming me to take over his job next year.
guarantee verb [ T ] MAKE CERTAIN
5. If something is guaranteed to happen or have a particular result, it is certain that it will happen or have that result
[ + to infinitive ] Just looking at a picture of the sea is guaranteed to make me feel sick.
happen verb [ I ] CHANCE
3. to do or be by chance
[ + to infinitive ] They happened to look (= looked by chance) in the right place almost immediately.
[ + ( that ) ] Fortunately it happened (that) there was no one in the house at the time of the explosion.
[ + that ] It just so happens that I have her phone number right here.
She happens to like cleaning (= She likes cleaning, although that is surprising) .
I happen to think he's right (= I do think so, although you do not) .
As it happened (= Although it was not planned) , I had a few minutes to spare.
hassle verb [ T ]
to annoy someone, especially by repeatedly asking them something
I'll do it in my own time - just stop hassling me!
[ + to infinitive ] The children keep hassling me to take them to Disneyland.
hasten verb formal
2. [ + to infinitive ] If you hasten to do something, you quickly do it
The president hastened to reassure his people that he was in perfect health.
hasten verb formal
3. [ + to infinitive ] If you hasten to say something, you want to make it clear
It was an unfortunate decision and I hasten to say it had nothing to do with me.
"People round here dress so badly - except you, Justin," she hastened to add.
hate verb [ I or T ]
to dislike someone or something very much
Kelly hates her teacher.
She hated the cold dark days of winter.
I hate it when you do that.
[ + -ing verb ] I have always hated speak ing in public.
I hate him tell ing me what do to all the time.
[ + to infinitive ] I hate (= do not want) to interrupt, but it's time we left.
I'd hate (= would not like) you to think I didn't appreciate what you'd done.
have verb had , had RECEIVE
6. [ T ] to receive, accept or allow something to happen
Here, have some more coffee.
[ + to infinitive ] My mother's having visitors ( to stay) next week.
Let me have the book back next week.
In the end they solved their problems and she had him back (= allowed him to come and live with her again) .
I looked in all the shops for string but there was none to be had (= none that anyone could obtain) .
I kept telling him that you were French but he wouldn't have it (= would not accept that it was true) .
[ + -ing verb ] I won't have those kids runn ing all over my flowerbeds (= I refuse to allow them to do this) .
hesitate verb [ I ]
to pause before you do or say something, often because you are uncertain or nervous about it
She hesitated slightly before answering the inspector's question.
"Do you love me?" she asked. He hesitated and then said, "I'm not sure".
[ + to infinitive ] If you need anything, don't hesitate to call me.
hire verb [ T ] UK
2. to employ someone or pay them to do a particular job
I was hired by the first company I applied to.
[ + to infinitive ] We ought to hire a public relations consultant to help improve our image.
hold verb held , held BELIEVE
12. [ T not continuous ] to believe an idea or opinion
[ + to infinitive ] Small amounts of alcohol are held to be good for the heart.
You sold it to me, so if it breaks I'll hold you responsible (= make you take responsibility) .
hope verb [ I or T ]
to want something to happen or to be true, and usually have a good reason to think that it might
I'm hoping for an interview next week.
[ + ( that ) ] She's hoping (that) she won't be away too long.
I hope (that) she'll win.
We have to hope and pray (that) the operation will go well.
[ + to infinitive ] They hope to visit us next year.
It's good news, I hope.
"Will you be at the meeting tomorrow?" "I hope not/so ".
hurry verb [ I or T ]
to move or do things more quickly than normal or to make someone do this
Hurry or you'll be late.
[ + to infinitive ] She hurried to answer the telephone.
I hate to hurry you, but I have to leave in a few minutes.
Don't hurry your food (= Don't eat it too quickly) .
I refuse to be hurried into a decision (= to be forced to make a decision too quickly) .
After spending her lunch hour shopping, she hurried back (= returned quickly) to work.
impel verb [ T ] -ll-
to make someone feel that they must do something
[ + to infinitive ] She was in such a mess I felt impelled to (= felt I had to) offer your services.
I wonder what it is that impels him to exercise all the time.
implore verb
1. [ T + to infinitive ] to ask someone to do or not do something in a very sincere, emotional and determined way
She implored her parents not to send her away to school.
incite verb [ T ]
to encourage someone to do or feel something unpleasant or violent
She incited racial hatred by distributing anti-Semitic leaflets.
[ + to infinitive ] She was expelled for inciting her classmates to rebel against their teachers.
They denied inciting the crowd to violence.
inspire verb [ T ]
1. to make someone feel that they want to do something and can do it
His confident leadership inspired his followers.
[ + to infinitive ] After her trip to Venezuela, she felt inspired to learn Spanish.
instruct verb ORDER
1. [ T + to infinitive ] to order or tell someone to do something, especially in a formal way
The police have been instructed to patrol the building and surrounding area.
intend verb [ T ]
to have as a plan or purpose
[ + to infinitive ] We intend to go to Australia next year.
Somehow I offended him, which wasn't what I'd intended.
[ + object + to infinitive ] I don't think she intended me to hear the remark.
The course is intended for intermediate-level students.
It was intended as a compliment, honestly!
intervene verb [ I ] GET INVOLVED
1. to intentionally become involved in a difficult situation in order to improve it or prevent it from getting worse
The Central Bank intervened in the currency markets today to try to stabilize the exchange rate.
[ + to infinitive ] The Minister intervened personally to stop the museum being closed.
labour UK , US labor verb
1. [ I ] to do hard physical work
He travelled around Europe labouring to pay his way.
[ + to infinitive ] Three hours after the explosion, rescue teams were still labouring to free those trapped.
lead verb led , led INFLUENCE
3. [ T ] to cause someone to do something, especially something bad
[ + to infinitive ] The brochure led me to believe that the price included home delivery.
It's worrying that such a prominent politician is so easily led.
He was a weak man, led astray by ambition.
learn verb learned or UK ALSO learnt , learned or UK ALSO learnt
1. [ I or T ] to get knowledge or skill in a new subject or activity
They learn Russian at school.
"Can you drive?" "I'm learning."
I've learned a lot about computers since I started work here.
[ + to infinitive ] I'm learning to play the piano.
[ + question word + to infinitive ] First you'll learn (how) to use this machine.
leave verb left , left GIVE RESPONSIBILITY
10. [ T ] to allow someone to make a choice or decision about something, or to make someone responsible for something
I left the decision (up) to her.
[ + to infinitive ] I left it to her to make the decision.
Leave it (= the problem) with me, I'll see what I can do.
I'll leave it to chance (= wait and see what happens without planning) .
license verb [ T ]
to give someone official permission to do or have something
[ + to infinitive ] Several companies have been licensed to sell these products.
like verb ENJOY
1. [ T ] to enjoy or approve of something or someone
I like your new haircut.
Do you like fish?
I like it when a book is so good that you can't put it down.
I quite like wine but I could live without it.
He's very well- liked (= popular) at work.
[ + -ing verb ] I don't like upsett ing people.
[ + to infinitive ] He likes to spend his evenings in front of the television.
[ + past participle ] He likes his steak well-done.
like verb WANT
4. [ + to infinitive ] used in requests
I'd like one of the round loaves, please.
[ + to infinitive ] I'd like to book a seat for tonight's performance.
[ + object + to infinitive ] I'd like you to send this for me first class, please.
[ + past participle ] I would like the whole lot finish ed by the weekend.
live verb HAVE LIFE
1. [ I ] (to continue) to be alive or have life
He only lived a few days after the accident.
I hope I live to see my grandchildren.
[ + to infinitive ] Her granny lived to the ripe old age of 94.
Can the right to live ever be denied to any human?
She lived on well into her nineties.
lobby verb [ I or T ]
to try to persuade a politician, the government or an official group that a particular thing should or should not happen, or that a law should be changed
Small businesses have lobbied hard for/against changes in the tax laws.
[ + to infinitive ] Local residents lobbied to have the factory shut down.
[ + object + to infinitive ] They have been lobbying Congress to change the legislation concerning guns.
manage verb SUCCEED
1. [ I or T ] to succeed in doing something, especially something difficult
[ + to infinitive ] Did you manage to get any bread?
I only just managed to finish on time.
A small dog had somehow managed to survive the fire.
I can't manage all this work on my own.
Don't worry about us - we'll manage!
Can you manage dinner on Saturday (= Will you be able to come to dinner) ?
mainly UK I'm afraid I can't manage the time (= I'm too busy) to see you at the moment.
mandate verb [ T ] ORDER
2. mainly US to order someone to do something
[ + to infinitive ] Our delegates have been mandated to vote against the proposal at the conference.
mean verb meant , meant INTEND
4. [ I or T ] to intend
I'm sorry if I offended you - I didn't mean any harm .
The books with large print are meant for our partially sighted readers.
[ + to infinitive ] I've been meaning to phone you all week.
Do you think she meant to say 9 a.m. instead of 9 p.m.?
[ + object + to infinitive ] This exercise isn't meant to be difficult.
They didn't mean for her to read the letter.
motivate verb
2. [ T ] to make someone want to do something well
[ + to infinitive ] Teaching is all about motivating people to learn.
need verb MUST HAVE
1. [ T ] to have to have something, or to want something very much
Babies need constant care.
The doctor said I needed an operation.
[ + to infinitive ] I need to go to the toilet.
Most people need to feel loved.
[ + object + to infinitive ] I need you to help me choose an outfit.
I badly need (= strongly want) a rest from all this.
informal I don't need all this hassle.
need verb MUST DO
3. [ + to infinitive or + infinitive without to ] to have (to)
[ + to infinitive ] He needs to lose a bit of weight.
I need to do some shopping on my way home from work.
[ + infinitive without to ] I don't think we need ask him.
Nothing need be done about this till next week.
slightly formal "Need we take your mother?" "No, we needn't/I don't think we need."
nominate verb [ T ] CHOOSE
3. to officially choose someone for a job or to do something
She was nominated as the delegation's official interpreter.
[ + to infinitive ] President Yeltsin nominated acting prime minister Sergei Kiriyenko to head the government.
offer verb AGREE TO GIVE
1. [ I or T ] to ask someone if they would like to have something or if they would like you to do something
[ + two objects ] I feel bad that I didn't offer them any food/offer any food to them.
She was offered a job in Paris.
Can I offer you (= Would you like) a drink?
"Would you sell me that painting?" "What are you offering (= What will you pay) for it?"
[ + to infinitive ] My father's offered to take us to the airport.
[ + speech ] "I'll do the cooking, " he offered.
"I could help." "No, it's all right, thanks." "Well, don't say I didn't offer."
omit verb [ T ] -tt-
to fail to include or do something
She was omitted from the list of contributors to the report.
The Prince's tour conveniently omitted the most deprived areas of the city.
[ + to infinitive ] formal She omitted to mention that she was going to Yorkshire next week.
opt verb [ I ]
to make a choice, especially for one thing or possibility in preference to any others
Mike opted for early retirement.
[ + to infinitive ] Most people opt to have the operation.
order verb INSTRUCT
2. [ T ] If a person in authority orders someone to do something, or orders something to be done, they tell someone to do it
The management has ordered a cutback in spending.
[ + speech ] "Wait over there, " she ordered.
[ + to infinitive ] They ordered him to leave the room.
organize , UK usually organise verb [ T ] ARRANGE
1. to make arrangements for something to happen
They organized a meeting between the teachers and students.
[ + to infinitive ] UK She had organized a car to meet me at the airport.
pain verb [ T ] formal
If something pains you, it causes you to feel sad and upset
[ + to infinitive ] It pains me to see animals being mistreated.
persuade verb [ T ]
to make someone do or believe something by giving them a good reason to do it or by talking to them and making them believe it
If she doesn't want to go, nothing you can say will persuade her.
[ + ( that ) ] It's no use trying to persuade him (that) you're innocent.
[ + to infinitive ] He is trying to persuade local and foreign businesses to invest in the project.
Using a bunch of bananas, the zoo-keeper persuaded the monkey back into its cage.
formal The first priority is to persuade the management of the urgency of this matter.
Her legal advisers persuaded her into/out of mentioning (= to mention/not to mention) the names of the people involved in the robbery.
pester verb [ T ]
to behave in an annoying manner towards someone by doing or asking for something repeatedly
At the frontier, there were people pestering tourists for cigarettes, food or alcohol.
[ + to infinitive ] John has been pestering her to go out with him all month.
plan verb -nn- DECIDE
2. [ I or T ] to intend to do something or that an event or result should happen
Our meeting wasn't planned - it was completely accidental.
[ + to infinitive ] I'm not planning to stay here much longer.
[ + adverb or preposition ] We only planned for six guests, but then someone brought a friend.
pledge verb [ T ]
to make a serious or formal promise to give or do something
We are asking people to pledge their support for our campaign.
If you join the armed forces, you have to pledge allegiance to your country.
So far, £50 000 has been pledged (= people have promised to pay this amount) in response to the appeal.
[ + to infinitive ] Both sides have pledged to end the fighting.
I've been pledged to secrecy.
plot verb -tt- SECRET PLAN
3. [ I or T ] to make a secret plan to do something wrong, harmful or illegal
The army is plotting the overthrow of the government.
I can't believe that he's plotting against his own father.
[ + to infinitive ] They're plotting (together) to take over the company.
plot verb -tt- SECRET PLAN
4. [ T ] humorous to make a secret plan to do something funny or fun to or for someone
[ + to infinitive ] They're plotting to play a trick on their brother.
He's plotting a surprise party for his wife's birthday.
possess verb [ T ] CONTROL
2. (of a wish or an idea) to take control over a person's mind, making that person behave in a very strange way
[ + to infinitive ] Whatever possessed him to wear that appalling jacket!
predict verb [ T ]
to say that an event or action will happen in the future, especially as a result of knowledge or experience
It's still not possible to accurately predict the occurrence of earthquakes.
[ + that ] Who could have predicted that within ten years he'd be in charge of the whole company?
[ + to infinitive ] The hurricane is predicted to reach the coast tomorrow morning.
[ + question word ] No one can predict wh en the disease will strike again.
prefer verb [ T ] -rr- CHOOSE
1. to like, choose or want one thing rather than another
Do you prefer hot or cold weather?
I prefer red wine to white.
[ + -ing verb ] He prefers watch ing rugby to play ing it.
[ + to infinitive ] I'd prefer not to discuss this issue.
formal I'd prefer you not to smoke (= I would like it better if you did not smoke) , please.
preordain verb [ T ] formal
(especially of a power thought to be greater than ordinary people) to decide or fix what will happen in a way that cannot be changed or controlled
[ + to infinitive ] Illness and suffering seemed (to be) preordained to be her lot.
His life seems to have followed a preordained path/direction.
prepare verb [ I or T ]
2. to expect that something will happen and to be ready for it
[ + to infinitive ] It almost seems as if she is preparing to die.
[ R ] You need to prepare your self for a long wait.
preset verb [ T ] presetting , preset , preset
to prepare a machine so it will operate or stop later, or to arrange for or agree to something
[ + to infinitive ] I'll preset the oven to come on at 5 p.m.
The agenda for the meeting has been preset.
presume verb BE RUDE
2. [ I ] to do something although you know that you do not have a right to do it
[ + to infinitive ] I wouldn't presume to tell you how to do your job, but shouldn't this piece go there?
I don't wish to presume (= make a suggestion although I have no right to) , but don't you think you should apologize to her?
He presumes on (= takes unfair advantage of) her good nature.
pretend verb [ I ]
1. to behave as if something is true when you know that it is not, especially in order to deceive people or as a game
[ + ( that ) ] He pretended (that) he didn't mind, but I knew that he did.
The children pretended (that) they were dinosaurs.
[ + to infinitive ] Were you just pretending to be interested?
She's not really hurt - she's only pretending.
Of course I was angry - I can't pretend otherwise .
profess verb [ T ]
to state something, sometimes in a way which is not sincere
[ + to infinitive ] She professes not to be interested in money.
I don't profess to know all the details about the case.
She professes ignorance of the whole affair, though I'm not sure I believe her.
program verb [ T ] -mm-
1. to write a series of instructions which make a computer perform a particular operation
[ + to infinitive ] She programmed the computer to calculate the rate of exchange in twelve currencies.
project verb CALCULATE
1. [ T usually passive ] to calculate an amount or number expected in the future from information already known
[ + to infinitive ] Government spending is projected to rise by 3% next year.
promise verb SAY CERTAINLY
1. [ I or T ] to tell someone that you will certainly do something
[ + to infinitive ] He promised faithfully to call me every week.
[ + that ] The government have promised that they'll reduce taxes.
[ + ( that ) ] Promise me (that) you won't tell him.
I'll have a look for some while I'm at the shops but I'm not promising anything.
Can I have that book back when you've finished because I've promised it (= I have said I will give it) to Sara.
[ + two objects ] Her parents promised her a new car if she passed her exams.
I've promised myself a long bath when I get through all this work.
[ + speech ] "I'll come round and see you every day, " she promised.
"I won't do anything dangerous." "You promise?" "I promise."
"I won't have time to take you shopping this afternoon." "But you promised!"
propose verb INTEND
5. [ T ] formal to intend to do something
[ + to infinitive ] How do you propose to complete the project in such a short time scale?
[ + -ing verb ] How do you propose tackl ing this problem?
I do not propose to reveal details at this stage.
What we are proposing is a radical change in approach.
purport verb [ T + to infinitive ] formal
to pretend to be or to do something, especially in a way that is not easy to believe
They purport to represent the wishes of the majority of parents at the school.
The study purports to show an increase in the incidence of the disease.
The tape recording purports to be of a conversation between the princess and a secret admirer.
4. [ T ] to forcefully persuade or direct someone to do or achieve something
Her parents pushed her into marry ing him.
The school manages to push most of its students through their exams.
If we want an answer from them by Friday, I think we're going to have to push them for it.
[ + to infinitive ] We had to push them to accept our terms, but they finally agreed to the deal.
[ R ] You'll never be successful if you don't push yourself (= work) harder.
queue verb [ I ] UK ( US line up , also UK queue up )
2. informal to want very much to do something
[ + to infinitive ] There are thousands of young women queueing up to be models.
reassure verb [ T ]
to comfort someone and stop them from worrying
[ + to infinitive ] I was nervous on my first day at college, but I was reassured to see some friendly faces.
[ + ( that ) ] He reassured me (that) my cheque would arrive soon.
refuse verb [ I or T ]
to say that you will not do or accept something
He asked me to give him another loan, but I refused.
He's in trouble but he's refused all (my offers of) help.
[ + to infinitive ] On cold mornings the car always refuses to start.
[ + two objects ] The local council refused him planning permission to build an extra bedroom.
regret verb [ T ] -tt-
to feel sorry about a situation, especially something sad or wrong or a mistake that you have made
Is there anything you've done in your life that you regret?
[ + -ing verb ] I have always regretted not hav ing studied harder at school.
[ + ( that ) ] formal The council regrets (that) the money to subsidise the youth club is no longer available.
[ + to infinitive ] formal British Airways regret to announce the cancellation of flight BA205 to Madrid.
rejoice verb [ I ] formal
to feel or show great happiness about something
Everyone rejoiced at the news of his safe return.
She rejoiced in her good fortune.
[ + to infinitive ] I rejoiced to see that she had made such a quick recovery.
remain verb
1. [ I or L ] slightly formal to stay in the same place or in the same condition
The doctor ordered him to remain in bed for a few days.
Most commentators expect the basic rate of tax to remain at 25%.
[ + to infinitive ] A great many things remain to be done (= have not yet been done) .
He remained silent.
It remains a secret.
The bank will remain open while renovations are carried out.
remind verb [ T ]
to make someone think of something they have forgotten or might have forgotten
Could you remind Paul about dinner on Saturday?
[ + to infinitive ] Please remind me to post this letter.
[ + ( that ) ] I rang Jill and reminded her (that) the conference had been cancelled.
resolve verb DECIDE
2. [ I ] formal to make a decision formally or with determination
[ + that ] She resolved that she would never speak to him again.
[ + adverb or preposition ] After hours of argument, they resolved against taking legal action.
[ + to infinitive ] The company resolved to take no further action against the thieves.
return verb GO BACK
1. [ I ] to come or go back to a previous place
Odysseus returned home/returned to his home after many years of travelling.
She left South Africa at the age of 15 and has never returned.
[ + to infinitive ] David returned ( from work) to find his house had burned down.
run verb running , ran , run GO QUICKLY
1. [ I or T ] (of people and some animals) to move along, faster than walking, by taking quick steps in which each foot is lifted before the next foot touches the ground
[ + to infinitive ] The children had to run to keep up with their father.
I can run a mile in 5 minutes.
The sheep ran away/off in fright.
A little girl ran up to (= came quickly beside) me, crying for her daddy.
Are you running against each other or against the clock?
The first two races will be run (off) (= will happen) in 20 minutes.
rush verb GO/DO QUICKLY
1. [ I or T usually + adverb or preposition ] to (cause to) go or do something very quickly
Whenever I see him, he seems to be rushing (about/around) .
I rushed up the stairs/to the office/to find a phone.
When she turned it upside down the water rushed out.
[ + to infinitive ] We shouldn't rush to blame them.
You can't rush a job like this.
The emergency legislation was rushed through Parliament in a morning.
Don't rush me!
The United Nations has rushed medical aid and food to the famine zone.
He rushed the children off to school so they wouldn't be late.
sadden verb [ T ]
to make someone sad
[ + to infinitive ] It saddens me to think that we'll never see her again.
We are deeply saddened by this devastating tragedy.
say verb said , said SPEAK
1. [ T ] to pronounce words or sounds, to express a thought, opinion, or suggestion, or to state a fact or instruction
Small children find it difficult to say long words.
She said goodbye to all her friends and left.
Ben never forgets to say "Please" and "Thank you".
How do you say 'goodbye' in French?
I'm sorry, what did you say?
Do you know what she said to him?
What did they say about the house?
[ + speech ] "I'm going out this evening, " she said.
[ + ( that ) ] The doctors say (that) it will take him a few weeks to recover.
[ + question word ] She didn't say wh ether she was coming.
Did she say (= tell you) wh y she wasn't coming?
[ + to infinitive ] informal He said (= told me) to meet him here.
I've got something to say to you.
The offer was so good that I couldn't say no (= couldn't refuse) .
say verb said , said GIVE INFORMATION
6. [ T ] to give information in writing, numbers or signs
My watch says 3 o'clock.
Can you read what that notice says?
[ + ( that ) ] It says in the paper (that) they've found the man who did it.
[ + to infinitive ] It says on the bottle to take three tablets a day.
schedule verb [ T often passive ]
to arrange that an event or activity will happen at a particular time
The meeting has been scheduled for tomorrow afternoon.
[ + to infinitive ] The train is scheduled to arrive at 8.45, but it's running twenty minutes late.
scheme verb [ I or T ] disapproving
to make clever secret plans which often deceive others
All her ministers were scheming against her
[ + to infinitive ] For months he had been scheming to prevent her from getting the top job.
school verb [ T ] formal
1. to train a person or animal to do something
It takes a lot of patience to school a dog/horse.
[ R + to infinitive ] You must school yourself to be tolerant.
scramble verb MOVE QUICKLY
2. [ I ] to compete with other people for something there is very little of
[ + to infinitive ] People are scrambling to buy property before prices rise even further.
seek verb sought , sought formal TRY
3. [ I + to infinitive ] to try or attempt
They sought to reassure the public.
seem verb [ I + adv/prep L ]
to give the effect of being; to be judged to be
He's 16, but he often seems (to be) younger.
The children seemed ( as if/as though/like they were) tired.
I suspect his claims are not all they seem - he tends to exaggerate.
Things are seldom as/how/what they seem.
[ + to infinitive ] I seem to know more about him than anyone else.
They seem to be tak ing a long time to decide.
[ + ( that ) ] It seems (that) she can't come.
It seems to me (that) (= I think that) he isn't the right person for the job.
formal It would seem (that) we need to be at the airport two hours before takeoff.
There seems to have been a mistake - my name isn't on the list.
[ after so ] "There's no reply - they've all gone home." " So it seems."
"Was a decision made?" "It seems not/so ."
send verb [ T ] sent , sent CAUSE TO GO
2. to cause or order someone to go and do something
[ + to infinitive ] We're sending the children to stay with my parents for a couple of weeks.
The commander has asked us to send reinforcements.
They've sent their son (away) to school in Scotland.
He was trying to explain but she became impatient and sent him away (= told him to leave) .
serve verb HELP ACHIEVE
3. [ I or T ] to help achieve something or to be useful as something
The minister said she did not consider that a public enquiry would serve any useful purpose .
The judge said that the fine would serve as a warning to other motorists who drove without due care.
In the absence of anything better the settee would serve (= could be used) as a bed for a couple of nights.
[ + to infinitive ] Nothing serves to explain the violent fighting we have seen recently.
old-fashioned My umbrella will serve for a weapon.
set verb setting , set , set GET READY
7. [ T ] to get something ready so that it comes into operation or can be used
[ + to infinitive ] The heating is set to come on at 5.00 p.m.
Have you set up the video recorder?
I usually set my watch by the time signal on the radio.
He set the alarm for 7.00 a.m.
Will you set the table (= put plates and utensils on it ready for use) , please?
shout verb USE LOUD VOICE
2. [ I or T ] to express strong emotions, such as anger, fear or excitement, or to express strong opinions, in a loud voice
Dad really shouted at me when I broke the window.
He shouted abuse at the judge after being sentenced to five years imprisonment.
The fans were screaming and shouting out the names of the band members.
[ + to infinitive ] I shouted at him to put the gun down.
[ + speech ] "Stop this childish nonsense at once!" he shouted furiously.
3. [ I or T ] to give an order or information, or make a request, using hand and body movements
[ + to infinitive ] He signed for/to the waiter to bring him another drink.
[ + that ] He signed to the waiter that he wanted another drink.
signal verb -ll- or US USUALLY -l- ACTION
1. [ I or T ] to make a movement, sound, flash, etc. which gives information or tells people what to do
Flashing lights on a parked car usually signal a warning ( to other motorists).
He signalled left, and turned the lorry slowly.
He was signalling (= giving a signal) with a red flag.
She signalled for help.
[ + that ] She signalled to the cars behind that they were going the wrong way.
[ + object + to infinitive ] The children's mother signalled them to be quiet.
[ + to infinitive ] The children's mother signalled to/for them to be quiet.
slate verb [ T ] CHOOSE
1. US to be expected to happen in the future or to be expected to be or do something in the future
[ + to infinitive ] Geoff is slated to be the next captain of the football team.
The election is slated for (= the chosen day is) next Thursday.
stand verb stood , stood STATE
2. [ I L only + adjective ] to be in, cause to be in or get into a particular state or situation
How do you think your chances stand (= are) of being offered the job?
The national debt stands at fifty-five billion dollars.
The house stood empty for years.
Martina is currently standing second in the world listings.
[ + to infinitive ] Our firm stands to lose (= will lose) a lot of money if the deal is unsuccessful.
We really can't allow the current situation to stand (= to exist in its current form) .
Newton's laws of mechanics stood (= were thought to be completely true) for over two hundred years.
Mix one sachet of paste into two litres of water, then leave the mixture to stand (= do not touch it) for at least fifteen minutes before use.
It would be difficult for her to stand much lower/higher in my opinion (= for me to have a worse/better opinion of her) after the way she behaved at the party.
formal You stand accused of murder, how do you plead?
start verb BEGIN
1. [ I or T ] to begin doing something
When do you start your course/your new job?
We'll be starting (the session) at six o'clock.
Can you start (= begin a new job) on Monday?
[ + -ing verb ] They started build ing the house in January.
[ + to infinitive ] I'd just started to write a letter when the phone rang.
stop verb -pp- FINISH
5. [ I ] to pause in a journey or an activity for a short time
Does this train stop at Finsbury Park?
Why don't you just stop somewhere and ask for directions?
[ + to infinitive ] I stopped to pick up a letter that I'd dropped.
strain verb PRESSURE
2. [ I or T ] to become stretched or to experience pressure, or to make something do or experience this
I've put on such a lot of weight recently - this dress is straining at the seams.
I strained a muscle in my back playing squash.
Don't watch TV in the dark - you'll strain your eyes !
[ + to infinitive ] figurative I really had to strain (= try very hard) to reach those top notes.
figurative I was straining (my ears) (= listening hard) to hear what they were saying.
strive verb [ I ] strove or strived , striven or strived
to try very hard to do something or to make something happen, especially for a long time or against difficulties
[ + to infinitive ] Mr Roe has kindled expectations that he must now strive to live up to.
In her writing she strove for a balance between innovation and familiar prose forms. 

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